Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
- A flower is a compressed shoot which bears nodes and modified floral leaves.
- Parts of a Flower
- Difference between Monoecious and Dioecious Plants
- Plants which bear flowers of both sexes. Example: Maize
- Plants which produce exclusively staminate or pistillate flowers. Example: Date palm
- Structure of Microsporangium
- The process of formation of microspores from a pollen mother cell through meiosis is called microsporogenesis.
A monocarpellary gynoecium consists of a single pistil, and a multicarpellary gynoecium has more than one pistil.
When more than one pistils are fused together, it is called syncarpous. When the pistils are free, it is called apocarpous.
The process of formation of megaspores from the megaspore mother cell is called megasporogenesis.
Structure of a Typical Angiosperm Ovule
Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same or different plant of the same species.
Types of Pollination
Emasculation is the technique in which the anthers of bisexual flowers are removed from the flower bud with the help of forceps before the anther dehisces.
If the pollen is of the right type, the pistil accepts the pollen and promotes post-pollination events which leads to fertilisation.
Double Fertilisation in Flowering Plants
The endosperm is a highly nutritive tissue formed as a result of triple fusion and provides nourishment to the developing embryo.
The zygote gives rise to the proembryo and the globular, heart-shaped mature embryo.
The portion of the embryonal axis above the level of cotyledons is the called the epicotyl, while the cylindrical portion below the level of the cotyledons is called the hypocotyl.
The seed is regarded as a fertilised mature ovule which bears an embryonic plant, a protective seed coat and often stored food material.
Embryonic Seeds and Non-Endospermic Seeds
Structure of Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous Seeds
A fruit is regarded as a ripened ovary.
A true fruit is a fruit which develops only from the ovary, whereas a false fruit is a fruit which develops from any floral part of the flower other than the ovary.
Special Modes of Reproduction
- The Living World
- Biological Classification
- Plant Kingdom
- Animal Kingdom
- Morphology of Flowering Plants
- Anatomy of Flowering Plants
- Structural Organisation in Animals
- Cell : The Unit of Life
- Cell Cycle and Cell Division
- Transport in Plants
- Mineral Nutrition
- Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
- Respiration in Plants
- Plant Growth and Development
- Digestion and Absorption
- Breathing and Exchange of Gases
- Body Fluids and Circulation
- Excretory Products and their Elimination
- Locomotion and Movement
- Neural Control and Coordination
- Chemical Coordination and Integration
- Reproduction in Organisms
- Human Reproduction
- Reproductive Health
- Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Human Health and Disease
- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Microbes in Human Welfare
- Biotechnology : Principles and Processes
- Biotechnology and its Applications
- Organisms and Populations
- Biodiversity and Conservation
- Environmental Issues