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Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis


  • A flower is a compressed shoot which bears nodes and modified floral leaves.

  • Parts of a Flower

  • Difference between Monoecious and Dioecious Plants

    Monoecious Plants

    Dioecious Plants

    • Plants which bear flowers of both sexes. Example: Maize
    • Plants which produce exclusively staminate or pistillate flowers. Example: Date palm
  • Structure of Microsporangium

  • The process of formation of microspores from a pollen mother cell through meiosis is called microsporogenesis.

  • A monocarpellary gynoecium consists of a single pistil, and a multicarpellary gynoecium has more than one pistil.

  • When more than one pistils are fused together, it is called syncarpous. When the pistils are free, it is called apocarpous.

  • The process of formation of megaspores from the megaspore mother cell is called megasporogenesis.

  • Structure of a Typical Angiosperm Ovule

  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same or different plant of the same species.

  • Types of Pollination

  • Emasculation is the technique in which the anthers of bisexual flowers are removed from the flower bud with the help of forceps before the anther dehisces.

  • If the pollen is of the right type, the pistil accepts the pollen and promotes post-pollination events which leads to fertilisation.

  • Double Fertilisation in Flowering Plants

  • The endosperm is a highly nutritive tissue formed as a result of triple fusion and provides nourishment to the developing embryo.

  • The zygote gives rise to the proembryo and the globular, heart-shaped mature embryo.

  • The portion of the embryonal axis above the level of cotyledons is the called the epicotyl, while the cylindrical portion below the level of the cotyledons is called the hypocotyl.

  • The seed is regarded as a fertilised mature ovule which bears an embryonic plant, a protective seed coat and often stored food material.

  • Embryonic Seeds and Non-Endospermic Seeds

  • Structure of Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous Seeds

  • A fruit is regarded as a ripened ovary.

  • A true fruit is a fruit which develops only from the ovary, whereas a false fruit is a fruit which develops from any floral part of the flower other than the ovary.

  • Special Modes of Reproduction

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