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NEET Biology Human Reproduction

Human Reproduction PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis



  • Human Reproductive System

  • The primary sex organs—the testes in males and the ovaries in females—produce gametes, i.e. sperms and ovum. This process is called gametogenesis.

  • Spermatogenesis is the process where sperm mother cells in seminiferous tubules of the testes change into haploid spermatozoa.

  • Oogenesis is the process of formation of haploid ova in the Graafian follicles of the ovary.

  • Ovulation is the process where the mature ovum at the secondary oocyte stage is released from the ovary by the rupturing of its Graafian follicles.

  • The first menstruation begins at puberty and is called menarche.

  • A phase in a woman’s life where permanent cessation of menstruation occurs is called menopause.

  • The menstrual cycle is the rhythmic series of changes in the sex organs which occur after every 28 days.
  • Phases of the Menstrual Cycle


  • The process of fusion of a sperm with an ovum is called fertilisation.

  • Implantation is the fixing of the fertilised ovum in the tissues of the uterus.

  • The placenta is an organic temporary connection between the mother and the foetus during pregnancy.

  • Parturition is the process of expulsion of the foetus from the uterus.

  • The signals for parturition originate from the fully developed foetus and the placenta which induce mild uterine contractions called foetal ejection reflex.

  • Colostrum is the first milk which comes out from the mother’s mammary glands after the birth of the baby.