NEET Biology Human Reproduction
Human Reproduction PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
- Human Reproductive System
- The primary sex organs—the testes in males and the ovaries in females—produce gametes, i.e. sperms and ovum. This process is called gametogenesis.
- Spermatogenesis is the process where sperm mother cells in seminiferous tubules of the testes change into haploid spermatozoa.
- Oogenesis is the process of formation of haploid ova in the Graafian follicles of the ovary.
- Ovulation is the process where the mature ovum at the secondary oocyte stage is released from the ovary by the rupturing of its Graafian follicles.
- The first menstruation begins at puberty and is called menarche.
- A phase in a woman’s life where permanent cessation of menstruation occurs is called menopause.
- The menstrual cycle is the rhythmic series of changes in the sex organs which occur after every 28 days.
- Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
- The process of fusion of a sperm with an ovum is called fertilisation.
- Implantation is the fixing of the fertilised ovum in the tissues of the uterus.
- The placenta is an organic temporary connection between the mother and the foetus during pregnancy.
- Parturition is the process of expulsion of the foetus from the uterus.
- The signals for parturition originate from the fully developed foetus and the placenta which induce mild uterine contractions called foetal ejection reflex.
- Colostrum is the first milk which comes out from the mother’s mammary glands after the birth of the baby.
- Trophoblast is formed in early development stage in which type of animals (A) mammals (B)birds (C)reptiles (D)all vertebrates
- Find the incorrect statement w.r.t. pregnancy and embryonic development in humans. (a) Placenta is a functional unit between developing embryo and material body formed by interdigitation of chorionic villi and uterine tissue. (b) Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL) and relaxin are produced in women only during pregnancy. (c) The inner cell mass contain stem cells which have the potency to give rise to all the tissues and organs. (d) By the end of second trimester, the first movements of the foetus and appearance of hair on head is usually observed
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