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NEET Biology Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Strategies for Enhancement In Food Production PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS


  • Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
  • Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption.
  • Dairy Farm Management
  • Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or eggs.
  • Inbreeding: It refers to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for 4-6 generations.

  • Outbreeding: It is the breeding of unrelated animals, which may be between individuals of the same breed (but having no common ancestors), or between different breeds (cross- breeding) or different species (inter-specific hybridisation).

  • Inbreeding depression is the loss in vigour associated with inbreeding.

  • Cross-breeding is the crossing of two breeds of the same species.

  • Differences between Intraspecific Hybridisation and Interspecific Hybridisation

  • Artificial insemination involves the collection of semen from a high-quality bull and its introduction into the body of the female by artificial means.

  • Multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology (MOET)

  • Apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey.

  • Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing or selling of fish, shellfish or other aquatic animals.

  • Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired plant types that are better suited for cultivation, give better yields and are resistant to diseases.

  • Steps Involved in Plant Breeding

  • Selection is the differential reproduction of individuals in a population.

  • Biofortification means to breed crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals or higher proteins and healthier fats.

  • Single cell protein (SCP) is a microbial biomass rich in high-quality protein.

  • Plant tissue culture is the maintenance and growth of plant cells.

  • Explant is the plant part excised from its original location and used for initiating culture.

  • The capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell/explant is called totipotency.

  • The method of producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.

  • A hybrid produced by the fusion of somatic cells of two different varieties or species is called a somatic hybridisation.