Biotechnology and its Applications
Biotechnology and Its Applications PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
- Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms in which foreign genes have been introduced through genetic engineering.
- Uses of Genetically Modified Plants
- Cry proteins are toxic proteins secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis in the crystal form during a particular phase of their growth.
- Genetically engineered insulin: In 1983, Eli Lilly, an American company, first prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to the A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of Escherichia coli to produce insulin chains. Chains A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds to form human insulin or humulin.
Gene therapy is the technique of genetic engineering to replace ‘a faulty gene’ by a normal healthy functional gene in humans. For example, ADA deficiency can be treated with gene therapy.
Applications of Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine
ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a simple and versatile technique used for screening HIV and is based on the principle of antigen–antibody interaction.
Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene are known as transgenic animals.
Benefits of Transgenic Animals:
GEAC (Genetical Engineering Approval Committee) has been set up to make decisions regarding the validity of GM research and the safety of introducing GM-organisms for public services.
Bioethics is a set of standards used to regulate our activities in relation to the biological world.
nauthorised use of bioresources and traditional knowledge related to bioresources for commercial benefits is called biopiracy.
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- The Living World
- Biological Classification
- Plant Kingdom
- Animal Kingdom
- Morphology of Flowering Plants
- Anatomy of Flowering Plants
- Structural Organisation in Animals
- Cell : The Unit of Life
- Cell Cycle and Cell Division
- Transport in Plants
- Mineral Nutrition
- Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
- Respiration in Plants
- Plant Growth and Development
- Digestion and Absorption
- Breathing and Exchange of Gases
- Body Fluids and Circulation
- Excretory Products and their Elimination
- Locomotion and Movement
- Neural Control and Coordination
- Chemical Coordination and Integration
- Reproduction in Organisms
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Human Reproduction
- Reproductive Health
- Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Human Health and Disease
- Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Microbes in Human Welfare
- Biotechnology : Principles and Processes
- Organisms and Populations
- Biodiversity and Conservation
- Environmental Issues