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NEET Biology Anatomy of Flowering Plants

Anatomy of Flowering Plants PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis



  • Classification of Plant Tissues

  • Classification of Tissue System

  • Differences between Monocotyledonous Stem and Dicotyledonous Stem:

    Monocotyledonous Stem

    Dicotyledonous Stem

    • Hypodermis is sclerenchymatous.
    • Hypodermis is collenchymatous.
    • Pith is absent.
    • Pith is well-developed.
    • Phloem parenchyma is absent.
    • Phloem parenchyma is present.
    • Vascular bundles are scattered.
    • Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.
    • Vascular bundles are conjoint and closed.
    • Vascular bundles are conjoint and open.

  • Differences between Monocotyledonous Root and Dicotyledonous Root:

    Monocotyledonous Root

    Dicotyledonous Root

    • Pericycle gives rise to lateral roots only.
    • Pericycle gives rise to cork cambium, parts of the vascular cambium and lateral roots.
    • It has a higher number of xylem and phloem.
    • It has a limited number of xylem and phloem.
    • The xylem is angular or polygonal.
    • The xylem is angular or polygonal.
    • The pith is larger and well developed.
    • The pith is absent or very small and undeveloped.
    • Conjunctive tissue is sclerenchymatous.
    • Conjunctive tissue is parenchymatous.
    • Xylem is polyarch.
    • Xylem is usually tetrarch.

  • Differences between Monocotyledonous Leaf and Dicotyledonous Leaf:

    Monocotyledonous Leaf

    Dicotyledonous Leaf

    • Isobilateral
    • Dorsiventral
    • Stomata equally present on both surfaces.
    • Stomata usually present on lower surface.
    • Stomata have dumb-bell shaped guard cells.
    • Stomata have bean-shaped guard cells.
    • Mesophyll is undifferentiated.
    • Mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.
    • Bulliform cells are present.
    • Bulliform cells are absent.
  • Increase in the girth or thickness of the plant is called secondary growth.

  • Secondary Growth in a Dicot Stem

  • Secondary Growth in a Dicot Stem