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NEET Biology Chemical Coordination and Integration

Chemical Coordination and Integration PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS

 

  • Endocrine System
    • Exocrine Glands: These are the glands with ducts. They discharge their secretions on the body surface or in body cavities.
    • Endocrine Glands: These are ductless glands. Their secretions are directly poured into the blood.
    • Heterocrine Glands: They are a mixed type of glands. They have exocrine as well as endocrine parts.
  • A hormone, also called a chemical messenger, is a secretion from some glandular part of the body which is poured into the blood and which acts on the target organs or cells of the same individual.
  • Hypothalamus and its Hormones
    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain which consists of several masses of grey matter called hypothalamic nuclei.

    Hypothalamic Hormone

    Response of Pituitary

    Target Organ
    1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (T-RH)

    Secretion of TSH

    Thyroid
    1. Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (A-RH)

    Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

    Adrenal cortex

    1. Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (FSH-RH)

    Secretion of FSH

    Ovary/Testis

    1. Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)

    Secretion of LH

    Ovary/Testis

    1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)

    Secretion of GH or STH

    Most tissues

    1. Somatostatin

    Inhibition of the secretion of growth hormone

    1. Prolactin-releasing hormone (P-RH)

    Secretion of LTH or prolactin hormone

    Mammary glands

  • Endocrine Glands and their Hormones

    Gland

    Hormones Functions Disorders

    Adrenal glands

    Adrenaline

    • Prepares the body for the fight and flight mechanism
    •  Addison’s disease
    • Cushing syndrome

    Thyroid gland

     Thyroxine 

     

    • Regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism

    • Increases the basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    • Regulates ossification of bones and mental development

    •  Simple goitre
    • Ophthalmic goitre
    • Cretinism

    Parathyroid glands

     

     

    Parathormone

    • Controls metabolism and maintains blood calcium level

    • Tetany
    • Demineralisation of bones

    Pituitary gland

    Anterior pituitary

    Growth hormone

    • Essential for normal growth
    • Dwarfism
    • Gigantism

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    • Controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland

    ____

    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • Stimulates the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females

    • Promotes spermatogenesis in males

    ____

    Luteinising hormone (LH)

    • Stimulates ovulation, formation of the corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone in females

    • Stimulates the secretion of androgens in the testes in males

    ____

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

     

    • Regulates the synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex

    ____

    Intermediate lobe

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

    • Stimulates melanocytes present in the skin and hence controls pigmentation

    ____

    Posterior pituitary

    Oxytocin

     

    • Stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles during childbirth

    • Stimulates ejection of milk from the mammary glands after delivery

    ____

    Vasopressin/anti-diuretic hormone

    • Stimulates the resorption of water and electrolytes by DCT in the kidneys

    ____

    Pineal gland

    Melatonin

    • Regulates the 24-hour diurnal rhythm of the body and body temperature

    ____

    Thymus

    Thymopoietin

    Thymosin

    • Controls the maturation and distribution of lymphocytes

    • Stimulates the production of antibodies

    ____

    Pancreas

    Insulin

     

    • Regulates the blood glucose (sugar) level
    •  Diabetes mellitus
    • Hyperglycemia

    Testes in males

    Testosterone
    • Controls the development of male sex organs and secondary sexual characters during puberty

    ____

    Ovaries in females

    Oestrogen

     

    • Controls the development of female sex organs and secondary sexual characters during puberty

    ____

  • Hormones of the Heart, Kidneys and Gastrointestinal Tract

    Organ

    Hormones

    Functions

    Heart

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

    • Causes dilation of blood vessels which results in decrease in blood pressure

    Kidney

    Erythropoietin

    • Stimulates erythropoiesis

    Stomach

    Gastrin

    • Stimulates the gastric glands to secrete gastric juice

    Intestine

    Secretin

    • Stimulates the secretion and release of bicarbonate ions and water from the exocrine pancreas

    Cholecystokinin

    • Stimulates the pancreas to release its enzymes

    • Stimulates the gall bladder to release bile in the duodenum

    Liver

    Angiotensinogen

    • Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone