Contact Us
Need assistance? Contact us on below numbers

For Study plan details

10:00 AM to 7:00 PM IST all days.

For Franchisee Enquiry


Join NOW to get access to exclusive
study material for best results

Thanks, You will receive a call shortly.
Customer Support

You are very important to us

For any content/service related issues please contact on this number

9372462318 / 9987178554

Mon to Sat - 10 AM to 7 PM

Your cart is empty

NEET Biology Chemical Coordination and Integration

Chemical Coordination and Integration PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis



  • Endocrine System
    • Exocrine Glands: These are the glands with ducts. They discharge their secretions on the body surface or in body cavities.
    • Endocrine Glands: These are ductless glands. Their secretions are directly poured into the blood.
    • Heterocrine Glands: They are a mixed type of glands. They have exocrine as well as endocrine parts.
  • A hormone, also called a chemical messenger, is a secretion from some glandular part of the body which is poured into the blood and which acts on the target organs or cells of the same individual.
  • Hypothalamus and its Hormones
    The hypothalamus is a part of the brain which consists of several masses of grey matter called hypothalamic nuclei.

    Hypothalamic Hormone

    Response of Pituitary

    Target Organ
    1. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (T-RH)

    Secretion of TSH

    1. Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (A-RH)

    Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

    Adrenal cortex

    1. Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (FSH-RH)

    Secretion of FSH


    1. Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)

    Secretion of LH


    1. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH)

    Secretion of GH or STH

    Most tissues

    1. Somatostatin

    Inhibition of the secretion of growth hormone

    1. Prolactin-releasing hormone (P-RH)

    Secretion of LTH or prolactin hormone

    Mammary glands

  • Endocrine Glands and their Hormones


    Hormones Functions Disorders

    Adrenal glands


    • Prepares the body for the fight and flight mechanism
    •  Addison’s disease
    • Cushing syndrome

    Thyroid gland



    • Regulates carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism

    • Increases the basal metabolic rate (BMR)

    • Regulates ossification of bones and mental development

    •  Simple goitre
    • Ophthalmic goitre
    • Cretinism

    Parathyroid glands




    • Controls metabolism and maintains blood calcium level

    • Tetany
    • Demineralisation of bones

    Pituitary gland

    Anterior pituitary

    Growth hormone

    • Essential for normal growth
    • Dwarfism
    • Gigantism

    Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    • Controls the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland


    Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

    • Stimulates the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females

    • Promotes spermatogenesis in males


    Luteinising hormone (LH)

    • Stimulates ovulation, formation of the corpus luteum and secretion of progesterone in females

    • Stimulates the secretion of androgens in the testes in males


    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)


    • Regulates the synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex


    Intermediate lobe

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

    • Stimulates melanocytes present in the skin and hence controls pigmentation


    Posterior pituitary



    • Stimulates the contraction of uterine muscles during childbirth

    • Stimulates ejection of milk from the mammary glands after delivery


    Vasopressin/anti-diuretic hormone

    • Stimulates the resorption of water and electrolytes by DCT in the kidneys


    Pineal gland


    • Regulates the 24-hour diurnal rhythm of the body and body temperature





    • Controls the maturation and distribution of lymphocytes

    • Stimulates the production of antibodies





    • Regulates the blood glucose (sugar) level
    •  Diabetes mellitus
    • Hyperglycemia

    Testes in males

    • Controls the development of male sex organs and secondary sexual characters during puberty


    Ovaries in females



    • Controls the development of female sex organs and secondary sexual characters during puberty


  • Hormones of the Heart, Kidneys and Gastrointestinal Tract





    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

    • Causes dilation of blood vessels which results in decrease in blood pressure



    • Stimulates erythropoiesis



    • Stimulates the gastric glands to secrete gastric juice



    • Stimulates the secretion and release of bicarbonate ions and water from the exocrine pancreas


    • Stimulates the pancreas to release its enzymes

    • Stimulates the gall bladder to release bile in the duodenum



    • Stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone