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Organic Compounds Containing Halogens

Organic Compounds Containing Halogens PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS

The halogen derivative of hydrocarbons are called as halogenated hydrocarbons. The general formula of monohalogenated hydrocarbons is R-X. (X = F, Cl, Br, I and R= alkyl, aryl etc.)

  1. Haloalkanes (R-X):

    • Classification:
    • Preparation:
    • General Characteristics:

      Bond energy order

      C-F > C-Cl > C-Br > C-I

      Boiling point order

      R-I > R-Br > R-Cl >R-F

      Density order

      R-I > R-Br > R-Cl

      Dipole moment order

      CH3Cl > CH3F > CH3Br > CH3I

      Stability order

      R-F> R-Cl> R-Br>R-I

    • Chemical Characteristics:

    1. Nucleophilic substitution reactions
      There are four types of substitution reactions, their characteristics are given below:

      Type

      SN1

      SN2

      SNi

      SNAr

      Molecularity

      Unimolecular

      Bimolecular

      Unimolecular

      Bimolecular

      Order

      Two-Step

      One-step

      One-step

      Two-Step

      Medium

      Acidic

      Basic

      Acidic

      Basic

      Intermediate

      Carbocation

      No intermediate

      No intermediate

      Carbanion

      Orientation of product

      Racemisation

      Inversion

      Retention

    2. Wittigs’ reactions:
      The formation of alkene by the action of ylide on carbonyl compounds is known as wittigs’ reaction.

      begin mathsize 12px style straight R subscript straight 2 straight C equals straight O  +  Ph subscript straight 3 straight P equals CHR thin space rightwards arrow with blank on top thin space straight R subscript straight 2 straight C equals CHR  +  Ph subscript straight 3 straight P equals straight O end style

    3. Friedal Craft reaction:



  2. Haloarenes (Ar-X):
    Preparation:
    1. From aromatic hydrocarbons:

    2. From diazonium salt:



      Chemical Reactions of Benzene:









      Friedel-Craft’s alkylation



      Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution:
      In this type of substitution reactions nucleophile attacked to the carbon of benzene ring having substituent. This reaction proceeds via an intermediate σ-complex, the benzenonium carbanion.

      e.g.,

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