Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
SYNOPSIS
 Lorentz force: Force on a charge q moving with velocity v in the presence of magnetic and electric fields B and E.
 The magnetic force is normal to and work done by it is zero.
 Force F on a straight conductor of length 𝓁 and carrying a steady current I placed in a uniform external magnetic field B, In a uniform magnetic field the force, dF = IBdl Sinθ, does not depend on the position vector r of the current element.Thus, this force is noncentral. The force is always perpendicular to the plane containing
 Biot–Savart law asserts that the magnetic field due to an element carrying a steady current I at a point P at a distance r from the current element is
 The magnetic field due to a circular coil of radius R carrying a current I at an axial distance x from the centre is
At the centre of the coil,  Ampere’s circuital law: For an open surface S bounded by a loop C,
_{ ,} where I refers to the current passing through S.
If B is directed along the tangent to every point on the perimeter, then
Where Ie is the net current enclosed by the closed circuit. Ampere’s law is an important tool in calculating the magnetic field due to current distribution. However, this usefulness is limited to only a few cases where the magnetic field has a symmetrical distribution in space. For example, this law cannot be used to find the magnetic field at the centre of a currentcarrying loop. Ampere’s circuital law is not an independent law, but it is derived from Biot–Savart law  The magnetic field at a distance R from a long, straight wire carrying a current I is given by
The field lines are circles concentric with the wire.  Magnetic field B inside a long solenoid carrying a current I is
B = μ_{0} nI
where n is the number of turns per unit length.
For a toriod,
where N is the total number of turns and r is the average radius. 
Magnetic moment m of a planar loop carrying a current I with N closely wound turns and an area A is
Direction of is given by the righthand thumb rule.
Righthand thumb rule: Curl the palm of your right hand along the loop with the fingers pointing in the direction of the current. The thumb sticking out gives the direction of (and ).
When this loop is placed in a uniform magnetic field B, the force F on it is F = 0
and the torque on it is
In a moving coil galvanometer, this torque is balanced by a counter torque due to a spring yielding
kϕ = NI AB
Where ϕ is the equilibrium deflection and k is the torsion constant of the spring.
Uses of a moving coil galvanometer:
 It is used to detect electric current in a circuit, e.g. Wheatstone Bridge.
 It is converted to an ammeter by putting a small resistance parallel to it.
 It is used as an ohmmeter.

An electron moving around the central nucleus has a magnetic moment given by
Where 𝓁 is the magnitude of the angular momentum of the circulating electron about the central nucleus. The smallest value of μ_{𝓁} is called the Bohr magneton μ_{B}, and it is μ_{B} = 9.27 × 10^{–24} J/T. 
Cyclotron:
A cyclotron is a device used to accelerate positively charged particles (like protons, αparticles, deuterons, ions etc.) to acquire enough energy to carry out nuclear disintegration.
A charge q executes a circular motion with frequency called the cyclotron frequency given byThis cyclotron frequency is independent of the particle’s speed and radius.
Time periodRadius
Limitations of a cyclotron:
A cyclotron cannot accelerate uncharged particles like neutrons. Positively charged particles with large mass (i.e. ions) cannot be accelerated after a certain speed in the cyclotron. 
Magnetic materials tend to point in the north–south direction.
Like magnetic poles repel and unlike poles attract each other.
Cutting a bar magnet in two leads to two smaller magnets.
Magnetic poles cannot be isolated. 
When a bar magnet of dipole moment is placed in a uniform magnetic field ,
 The force on it is zero.
 The torque on it is .
 Its potential energy is , where we choose the zero of the energy at the orientation when is perpendicular to .

Consider a bar magnet of size 𝓁 nd magnetic moment at a distance r from its midpoint, where r >>𝓁; the magnetic field due to this bar is

Gauss’s law for magnetism: The net magnetic flux through any closed surface is zero.

Curie’s law: According to Curie’s law, the susceptibility of a paramagnetic substance is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature: m = c/T, where c is a constant called the Curie constant.

The pole near the geographic north pole of the Earth is called the north magnetic pole.
The pole near the geographic south pole is called the south magnetic pole.
The magnitude of the magnetic field on the Earth’s surface = 4 × 10^{−5} T. 
Three quantities are needed to specify the magnetic field of the Earth on its surface—the horizontal component, the magnetic declination and the magnetic dip.
These are known as the elements of the Earth’s magnetic field. 
Consider a material placed in an external magnetic field
The magnetic intensity is defined asThe magnetisation of the material is its dipole moment per unit volume.
The magnetic field in the material isFor a linear material _{ So,}
where
𝓍: Magnetic susceptibility of the material
μ_{r}: Relative magnetic permeability
The relative magnetic permeability μr and the magnetic permeability μ are related as follows:μ = μ_{0} μ_{r}
μ_{r} = 1 +𝓍 
Magnetic materials are broadly classified as diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic.
For diamagnetic materials, 𝓍 is negative and small.
For paramagnetic materials, 𝓍 is positive and small.
For ferromagnetic materials, 𝓍 is positive and large. 
Substances which at room temperature retain their ferromagnetic property for a long period of time are called permanent magnets.

HYSTERESIS
If a ferromagnetic material is magnetised in one direction and the applied magnetising field is removed, then its magnetisation will not be reduced to zero. It must be driven back to zero by a field in the opposite direction. If an alternating magnetic field intensity is applied to the material, its
magnetisation will trace out a loop called a hysteresis loop. The phenomenon in which magnetic flux density (B) lags behind the magnetising field (H) in a ferromagnetic material during cycles of magnetisation is called hysteresis
Related Chapters
 Physics and Measurement
 Kinematics
 Laws of Motion
 Work, Energy and Power
 Rotational Motion
 Gravitation
 Properties of Solids and Liquids
 Thermodynamics
 Kinetic Theory of Gases
 Oscillations and Waves
 Electrostatics
 Current Electricity
 Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
 Electromagnetic Waves
 Optics
 Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
 Atoms and Nuclei
 Electronic Devices
 Communication Systems