Chemical Kinetics PDF Notes, Important Questions And Synopsis
Chemical Kinetics PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
Rate of chemical reaction:
- The rate of chemical reaction is the change in concentration over the change in time.
Types of rates of chemical reaction:
- Average rate: The rate of reaction measured over a long time interval is called the average rate of reaction.
- Instantaneous rate: It is the rate of reaction when the average rate is taken over a very small interval of time.
- Rate = K (conc.)order − differential rate equation or rate expression,
where K = rate constant = specific reaction rate = rate of reaction when concentration is unity
- unit of K = (conc)1- order time-1
- Total number of atoms, ions or molecules of the reactants involved in the reaction is termed its molecularity.
- m1A + m2B→products
- R ∝ [A]P [B]q, where p may or may not be equal to m1 and the similarly q may or may not be equal to m2.
- p is the order of reaction with respect to reactant A, q is the order of reaction with respect to reactant B and (p + q) is the overall order of the reaction.
- The rate of reaction does not change with the concentration of the reactants.
- Rate = k [conc.]° = constant
- The reaction in which the rate of reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of a reacting substance.
- Half-life: The time taken for a reaction when half of the starting material has reacted is called half-life of the reaction.
Second order reaction:
- The reaction in which the sum of powers of concentration terms in rate law or rate equation is two.
Pseudo first order reaction:
- The reaction which is bimolecular, but the order is one is called a pseudo first order reaction; for example, acidic hydrolysis of ester.
Third order reaction:
- The reaction in which the sum of the powers of concentration terms in rate law or rate equation is equal to three.
where x + y = 3
Specific rate constant (k):
- It is equal to the rate of reaction when the molar concentration of the reactant is unity.
- The minimum amount of energy that is required to activate atoms or molecules to start a reaction.
- The rate at the beginning of the reaction when the concentrations have not changed appreciably.
- Greater the surface area, more will be the rate of reaction.
- Rate of reaction increases with the increase in concentration in general except in zero order reaction.
When we increase the temperature, the number of molecules possessing activation energy increases because average kinetic energy of molecules increases. So, increasing the temperature increases the reaction rates.
A catalyst increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy.
- It is based on the kinetic theory of gases. A chemical reaction takes place as a result of reacting collisions.
- Collision frequency (Z): The number of collisions which takes place per second per volume of the reaction mixture is called collision frequency.
- Effective collision: Collisions which lead to the formation of product molecules are called effective collisions.
- The rate of reaction depends on the number of effective collisions.
- Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of penetrating rays in the form of particles or high-energy photons resulting from a nuclear reaction.
- These penetrating rays are classified in three categories—alpha, beta, gamma.
Law of Radioactive Decay (Rutherford and Soddy Law):
According to this law, the activity of radioactive nuclei is directly proportional to the number of radioactive nuclei present at any instant.
Law of Radioactive Displacement Law (Group Displacement Law):
On the emission of an alpha particle, the new element lies two columns left in the periodic table and the mass number decreases by 4 points.
On the emission of a beta particle, the new element lies one column right in the periodic table and the mass number remains the same.
Radioactive change is an irreversible process, but it shows equilibrium when a daughter element disintegrates at the same rate at which it is formed from parent element.
The phenomenon of splitting up of a heavy nucleus on bombardment with slow speed neutrons is known as nuclear fission.
The phenomenon of joining of two lighter nuclei into a heavier nucleus is called nuclear fusion.
Radioactive dating means determining the age of a mineral specimen by determining the relative amounts present in certain radioactive elements.
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