Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis
SYNOPSIS
An electromagnetic wave has dual (wave–particle) nature.
 The wave nature of light can be observed in the phenomena of interference, diffraction and polarisation.
 While photoelectric effect and Compton effect involve energy and momentum transfer, radiation behaves as if it is made of a bunch of particlesphotons show particle nature of a wave.
Wave nature of matter
 De Broglie said that wave nature was symmetrical and that the two basic physical entities—matter and energymust have symmetrical character. If radiation shows dual aspects, so should matter.
 De Broglie proposed that wavelength λ is associated with a particle of momentum p.
 This wavelength is so small that it is beyond any measurement. This is the reason why macroscopic objects in daily life do not show wavelike properties.
 De Broglie hypothesis
 Matter shows dual character like electromagnetic radiation does. It also shows wavelike properties.
 Apart from being a particle, a wavelength associated with matter is called de Broglie
wavelength. It is given by the relation,_{}  where m is the mass of the particle, v is speed and h is Planck’s constant.
 On the lefthand side of the above equation, λ is the attribute of a wave, while on the righthand side, the momentum p is a typical attribute of a particle.
 De Broglie wavelength for a photon
 De Broglie’s idea that matter also exhibits duality and has wave properties can be expressed quantitatively by first considering electromagnetic radiation.
 A photon of frequency v and wavelength λ has energy:_{}
 De Broglie wavelength for an electron
If an electron (charge = e) is accelerated by potential difference of volts, then it acquires kinetic energy of
K=eV  Therefore, the formula can be written as
 Substituting the numerical values of h, m and e,
Davison and Germer experiment
Davisson–Germer electron diffraction arrangement
Result

It was noticed that a strong peak appeared in the intensity (I) of the scattered electron for an accelerating voltage of 54 V at a scattering angle θ = 50°.

This is due to the constructive interference of electrons scattered from different layers of the regularly spaced atoms of the crystals.

From the electron diffraction measurements, the wavelength of matter waves was found to be 0.165 nm.
Photoelectric effect
 When light falls on a metal surface, some electrons near the surface absorb enough energy from the incident radiation to overcome the attraction of the positive ions in the material of the surface.
 After gaining sufficient energy from the incident light, the electrons escape from the surface of the metal into the surrounding space.
 The photoelectric emission is an instantaneous process without any apparent time lag (〖~10〗^(9)s or less) even when the incident radiation is made exceedingly dim.
Photoelectric effect
 When light of an appropriate frequency (or correspondingly of an appropriate wavelength) is incident on a metallic surface, electrons are liberated from the surface. These photo or lightgenerated electrons are called photoelectrons.
 The incident light photon should be greater than or equal to the work function of the metal.
E ≥ W
hν ≥ W
ν ≥ W/h
Work function
 The minimum energy required by an electron to escape from the metal surface is called the work function of the metal. It is generally denoted by W and measured in electron volt (eV).
Threshold frequency
 The minimum frequency W/h required for emission of electrons is called threshold frequency. It is denoted by ν0.
ν0 = W/h (threshold frequency)
Effect of intensity of light on photocurrent
 Photocurrent increases linearly with the intensity of incident light when accelerating potential is fixed.
Effect of potential on photoelectric current
 The photoelectric current increases with an increase in accelerating (positive) potential.
 The maximum value of the photoelectric current is called saturation current.
 At saturation current, all the photoelectrons emitted by the emitter plate reach the collector plate.
Intensity of incident radiation
 The photocurrent is found to decrease rapidly until it drops to zero at a certain critical value of the negative potential V0, which is called the retarding potential V0.
 The minimum negative (retarding) potential given to the plate for which the photocurrent stops or becomes zero is called the cutoff or stopping potential.
 Photoelectric current is zero when the stopping potential is sufficient to repel even the most energetic photoelectrons with the maximum kinetic energy (Kmax).
K max = e V0
Einstein’s photoelectric equation
 The electron is emitted with maximum kinetic energy given by K max = hν – φ0.
 Kmax depends linearly on ν and is independent of the intensity of radiation.
 Photoelectric emission is possible only if h ν > φ0.
 Greater the work function φ0, higher the minimum or threshold frequency ν0 needed to emit photoelectrons.
Photoelectric equation can be written as eV0 = h ν – φ0, for ν ≥ ν0.
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