what is ineffective shielding? what do you mean by oxidation state and how we can obtain oxidation number of any element ? show me with the help of several examples?

Asked by shiv nandan | 29th Aug, 2010, 12:00: AM

Expert Answer:

Ineffective or poor shielding of the nuclear charge by the electrons in the d and f orbitals is because of their shapes and poor penetration power. As a result the outer valence electrons are more strongly attracted by the nucleus resulting in increase in ionization potentials.
Oxidation state is the indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound
For example:
Vanadium forms a number of different ions - for example, V2+ and V3+.
The 2+ ion will be formed by oxidising the metal by removing two electrons:

The vanadium is now said to be in an oxidation state of +2.

Removal of another electron gives the V3+ ion:

The vanadium now has an oxidation state of +3.

Answered by  | 29th Aug, 2010, 11:35: AM

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