CBSE - X - Biology
how does aneuron works.explain with diagram
A neuron is a specialised cell in the nervous system that takes up, processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. Neurons transport stimuli. The stimulation is transported by the ascending neurons to the central nervous system and in return, the descending neurons stimulate the sensory organ.
Working of a neuron:
- All neurons are electrically excitable.
- The electrical impulse mostly arrives on the dendrites, gets processed into the cell body to then move along the axon.
- On its all length an axon functions merely as an electric cable, simply transmitting the signal.
- Synapse is the point of contact between the terminal branches of the axon of a neuron and the dendrites of another neuron separated by a fine gap, i.e. a synaptic cleft.
- As the nerve impulse reaches the axon terminal of one neuron, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released by the bulbs present in the axon.
- Acetylcholine sets a new impulse in the dendrites of the adjacent neuron; hence, the impulse is transmitted from one neuron to the other neuron.
- Acetylcholine is then broken down by an enzyme to ensure that the synapse is ready for the transmission of the next nerve impulse.
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