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Que: Equal and opposite charges cancel out eachother's effect then why doesn't centrifugal force cancel out centripetal force's effect on a particle moving in circular motion?
Forces acting on equal and opposite charages separated by a distance d are two different forces .

Each force acting on respective charge . Magnitudes of these forces are same and directions are opposite.

Hence,  Forces acting on equal and opposite charages separated by a distance d cancel each other.

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Centripetal force and centrifugal force are one and the same but they are measured in different frames of reference.

when an object is moving in a circular motion on the ground , centripetal force is measured with respect to the inertial frame of reference on the ground.

Centrifugal force is a pseudo force that exist only if we change the frame of reference that is moving with the object.

Magnitude of centrifugal force is same as that of centripetal force but in opposite direction .

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