how we give IUPAC name to compounds

Asked by hy666333 | 12th Dec, 2018, 08:04: PM

Expert Answer:

According to the IUPAC system, the name of an organic compound consists of three parts:

  1. Root word
  2. Suffix
  3. Prefix

 

Root Word:

It depends on the number of carbon atoms present in the longest carbon chain selected.

 

Number of carbon atoms

Root word

One carbon atom           C1

Meth

Two carbon atoms           C2

Eth

Three carbon atoms        C3

Prop

Four carbon atoms          C4

But

Five carbon atoms           C5

Pent

Six carbon atoms             C6

Hex

Seven carbon atoms        C7

Hept

Eight carbon atoms          C8

Oct

Nine carbon atoms           C9

Non

Ten carbon atoms         C10

Dec

 

Suffix:

The root word is followed by an appropriate suffix which represents the nature of the bond in a carbon–carbon atom.

 

Nature of bond

Suffix

General name

General formula

Single bond (C–C)

  -ane

Alkane

CnH2n+2

Double bond (C=C)

  -ene

Alkene

CnH2n

Triple bond ( )

  -yne

Alkyne

CnH2n−2

Group (R-)

  -yl

Alkyl

CnH2n+1

 

Prefix:

It denotes the substituent, alkyl or functional group and its position in the carbon chain.

Di-, tri- and tetra- are used for two, three and four groups of the same type, respectively.

In naming an organic compound, the following simple rules are followed:

1. Selection of carbon chains: The longest continuous chain of ‘C’ atoms, known as parent chain, is selected. The longest chain need not be straight. For example:

 

Here, the longest chain is of 7 carbon atoms, so the root word is ‘hept’, the remaining carbon atoms are substituents.

 

2. The branch chains are considered substituents, and their positions are indicated by the number of carbon atoms to which they are attached.

  For example:

 

3. The carbon atoms of the longest chain are numbered in such a way that the alkyl groups get the smallest possible number.

For example:

 

4. In case, any functional group is present in the chain, the carbon atoms are numbered in such a way that the functional group gets the smallest possible number.

For example:

5. In case, different types of substituents are attached to the chain, they are arranged and named alphabetically.

 

 2,Bromo,4 chloro hexane

 

6. The positions of alkyl groups are indicated by writing the position and name of the alkyl group just before the name of the parent hydrocarbon.

 

 

                       3-ethylheptane

 

7. Multiple alkyl groups are labeled with the Greek numerical prefixes such as ‘di’ for two, ‘tri’ for three, ‘tetra’ for four, ‘penta’ for five.

    If two alkyl groups are on the same carbon atom, then the numeral is repeated.

 

Answered by Varsha | 13th Dec, 2018, 10:45: AM