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CBSE Class 10 Grammar Revision Notes for Tenses

Tenses

 

What are Tenses?

Tense is something which tells us when the action expressed by the verb took place. There are three main divisions of tenses. 

  • Past Tense: The past tense is used to talk about actions which took place in the past.



  • Present Tense: The present tense is used to talk about actions which take place in the present.



  • Future Tense: The future tense is used to talk about actions which will take place in the future.

 

Present Tense

The present tense can be divided into four categories: 

  1. Simple
  2. Continuous
  3. Perfect
  4. Perfect continuous
 
Simple Present Tense
Examples of sentences in the simple present tense:
 
 
Present Continuous Tense
  • The present continuous tense is used to express actions which are currently in progress.
  • Progressive helping verbs (is, am, are) are used along with the ‘-ing’ form of the verb.

 
Examples of sentences in the present continuous tense:
 
 
Present continuous tense on a timeline:
 
 
Present Perfect Tense
  • The present perfect tense is used to express an action which may have happened at a specific time before now.
  • Perfect helping verbs (has, have) are used with the past participle form of the verb.

  • The present perfect tense is never used when the time or date of the action is mentioned.
    • Frieda has visited us in 1999. Incorrect
    • Frieda visited us in 1999. Correct

 

       Examples of sentences in the present perfect tense:



Present perfect tense on a timeline:

 

 

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

  • The present perfect continuous tense is used to express an action which may have happened in the past and has continued up to this very moment.
  • It is formed out of the addition of perfect helping verbs (has, have) to the participle form of progressive helping verbs (been) and finally to the ‘-ing’ form of the main verb.

Examples of sentences in the present perfect tense:
 
 
Points to remember
  • The words ‘for’ and ‘since’ are used with the present perfect continuous tense to indicate the duration of the action.
  • Use ‘for’ to talk about the duration of the action.
    • The Principal has been lecturing us for one hour.
    • It has been pouring for four hours.
  • Use ‘since’ to indicate when the action began.
    • Ram Singh has been working in this company since 1980.
    • Both the men have been toiling in the field since morning.
 
Present perfect continuous on a timeline:

 
Past Tense
The past tense can be divided into four categories: 
  1. Simple
  2. Continuous
  3. Perfect
  4. Perfect continuous
 
Simple Past Tense
  • The simple past tense is used to express an action which was completed at one point of time in the past.

Simple past tense on a timeline:
 
 
Past Continuous Tense
  • The past continuous tense is used to express actions which were in progression at one point of time in the past.
  • It is formed when progressive helping verbs (was, were) are added to the ‘-ing’ form of the main verb.





Past continuous tense on a timeline:
 
 
 
Past Perfect Tense
  • The past perfect tense is used to express an action which may have happened at a specific time before another action began in the past.
  • The perfect helping verb ‘had’ is used with the past participle form of the verb.



  • The past perfect tense is never used when the time or date of the action is mentioned.
    • Kirk had graduated in 2007. Incorrect
    • Kirk graduated in 2007. Correct

 
Past perfect tense on a timeline:
 
 
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
  • The past perfect continuous tense is used to express an action which may have started at a particular point of time in the past and may have ended at another point of time in the past.
  • It is formed out of the addition of the perfect helping verb had to the participle form of the progressive helping verb been and finally to the ‘-ing’ form of the main verb.

     

Examples of sentences in the past perfect continuous tense:
 


 
Past perfect continuous tense on a timeline:
 
 
 
Future Tense
The future tense can be divided into four categories: 
  1. Simple
  2. Continuous
  3. Perfect
  4. Perfect continuous
 
Simple Future
  • The simple future tense is formed by adding the modal auxiliaries ‘will’, ‘would’, ‘may’, ‘shall’ and ‘might’ to the simple present tense of the main verb.





Simple future tense on a timeline:
 
 
Future Continuous Tense
  • The future continuous tense is formed by adding the modal auxiliaries ‘will’ or ‘would’ and the progressive helping verb ‘be’ to the ‘-ing’ form of the main verb.

Examples of sentences in the future continuous tense:
 
 
Future continuous tense on a timeline:
 
 
Future Perfect Tense
  • The future continuous tense is formed by adding the modal auxiliaries ‘will’ or ‘would’ and the perfect helping verb ‘have’ to the participle form of the main verb.







Future Perfect Continuous Tense
  • The future perfect continuous tense is formed by the addition of the modal auxiliaries will or would; perfect helping verb have; the past participle form of progressive helping verbs (been); and the present participle (-ing) form of the main verb.

Examples of sentences in the future perfect continuous tense:
 
 
Future perfect continuous tense on a timeline:
 
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