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CBSE Class 10 Grammar Revision Notes for Comparison

 

 

COMPARATIVES


Comparison of Adjectives 

An adjective is used to make comparisons between two or more nouns. It may highlight the similarity or difference between the nouns. There are three degrees of comparison:

  • Positive degree
  • Comparative degree
  • Superlative degree 

 

The positive degree of the adjective is used when only the noun is being described.  

Bengaluru is a big city.

(The adjective ‘big’ merely describes the city.) 

 

In the positive degree, the adjective alone is used in the sentence. Sometimes, in the positive degree, the phrase ‘as (adjective) as’ is used to show comparison between two things. 

Sita is as tall as Gita.

The comparative degree of the adjective is used when the noun is compared to another.

 

Delhi is bigger than Bengaluru.

(The adjective ‘bigger’ is used to compare ‘Delhi’ to ‘Bengaluru’.)

 

In the comparative degree, the preposition ‘than’ is used after the adjective. 

 

The superlative degree of the adjective is used when the noun is compared to three or more things.

 

But Mumbai is the biggest city of all.

(The adjective ‘biggest’ is used to compare ‘Mumbai’ to ‘Delhi’ and ‘Bengaluru’.)

 

 

 

In the superlative degree, the definite article ‘the’ is used with the adjective. 

Regular Comparison

Most adjectives with single syllables end with the suffix ‘-er’ or ‘-est’ in the comparative degree and superlative degree, respectively.

 

When the positive degree adjectives end in ‘-y’ preceded by a consonant, the ‘y’ becomes ‘i’ and ‘er’ and ‘est’ are added.

 

When the adjective ends in a ‘consonant–vowel–consonant’ structure, the last consonant is repeated and ‘er’ or ‘est’ is added.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some adjectives which contain two or more syllables form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding the words ‘more’ and ‘most’, respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some comparisons are irregular and do not follow the same rules as conventional adjectives. Their comparative and superlative degrees are not formed from their positive degree.

 











Changing the Degree

It is possible to change the degree of the adjective without changing its meaning. Let us read the following sentences:

 

 

 

 

 

In the above sentences, the degrees of the adjectives are different; however, the meaning of all the three sentences is the same. Let us look at the rules for changing the degree of the adjectives. 

 

Changing into the Positive Degree

While changing the sentence into any degree, it is important to understand what kind of comparison is made.

 

  • In Sentence a, Manu is the smartest; in Sentence b, Manu is one of the smartest people which means there are other smart people whom the speaker has met. 
  • While changing Sentence a to the positive degree, the phrase ‘No other...’ should be used to start the new sentence. The adjective in the positive degree should be accompanied by the phrase ‘as (adjective) as’.



  • While changing Sentence b into the positive degree, the phrase ‘not many people’ or ‘few people’ can be used to introduce the sentence. 
  • Even in such cases, the adjective in the positive degree should be accompanied by the phrase ‘as (adjective) as’.


Let us look at more examples:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Changing into the Comparative Degree

While changing a sentence into the comparative degree, first understand the nature of the comparison.

  • In Sentence a, the sentence implies that Jaya is the most accomplished person and there are no others who are as accomplished as he is.
  • To change the sentence into the comparative degree, use the comparative form of the adjective (more accomplished). 
  • The adjective has to be followed by the preposition ‘than’. 
  • Use the phrase ‘any other’ in the sentence to imply that there are no others who could be compared to Jaya.
  • The noun which follows ‘any other’ is always singular (any other person).



  •  In Sentence b, there are many accomplished people; Jaya is one among them.

  •  It has to be changed into the comparative degree using the comparative form of the adjective and the phrase ‘many other’ instead of ‘any other’.
  • This implies that there are other accomplished people in the industry.
  • The noun which follows ‘many other’ is plural (many other people).

Let us look at more examples:


Changing into the Superlative Degree 
Let us consider the following examples.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Let us change both into superlative degrees.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Remember to use the definite article ‘the’ with the superlative adjective.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sentence a implies that there are other bright pupils. So, one should use the phrase ‘one of the...’ or ‘is among the...’ to indicate there are others who are at par with Sumesh.
 
Let us look at more examples:
 
 












Rules 
When two qualities are compared
 
The comparative ‘more’ is used with adjectives when two qualities in the same person are compared. Usually, two nouns are compared for the same quality. In that case, we say,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If we wish to compare two qualities or adjectives in the same noun, we say,
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Let us look at more examples:
 
 













Special Adjectives
  • Adjectives such as interior, exterior, ulterior, major and minor are Latin adjectives. They are always in the positive degree.
  • Adjectives such as prior, inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, senior and junior are comparative adjectives which are followed by the preposition ‘to’ instead of ‘than’.



  • Adjectives such as perfect, complete, full, eternal, perpetual, circular, universal and unique are adjectives which do not have degrees.

     
 
Comparison
  • Comparison always happens between things which belong to the same category. Always check for illogical comparisons.



  • In (a), the comparison is illogical because the sentence gives us the impression that the population of China is compared to the country India.
  • In the correct sentence (b), the population of China is compared to the population of India.

Comparison of Adverbs

An adverb is a word which describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb. It can also be used for comparing adjectives, verbs and adverbs. Like adjectives, some adverbs too have three degrees of comparison. 
  • Positive degree
  • Comparative degree
  • Superlative degree
 
The positive degree of the adverb is used merely to describe an action or its quality.
 
The swift-footed hare sprinted fast.
(The action ‘sprinted’ has been described.)
 
The comparative degree of the adverb is used for comparing two actions. 
 
The agile horse ran faster than the swift-footed hare.
(The actions of the horse and the hare are compared.)
 
The superlative degree of the adverb is used to compare the action of one noun to two or more nouns.
 
The cheetah ran the fastest.
(The action of the cheetah is compared to the hare and the horse.)
 
 
Regular Comparison

If the adverb has one syllable, the comparative degree is formed by adding the suffix ‘-er’ and the superlative degree is formed by adding the suffix ‘-est’.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
If the adverbs end in ‘-ly’, it will form the comparative and superlative degrees by adding ‘more’ and ‘most’, respectively.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Exception to this rule:
 
 
 
Irregular Comparisons
 
Some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The rules related to adverbs are similar to those of adjectives with respect to comparison. 
 
  • In the positive degree, the phrase ‘as...as’ or ‘so much as’ is used.



  • In the superlative degree, the adverb can sometimes be preceded by the definite article.



  • Only adverbs of manner, degree and time are capable of being compared.
  • Some adverbs cannot be subjected to comparison.
    Examples: now, where, here, somewhere 

 

 

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