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CBSE Class 10 Grammar Revision Notes for Relatives

Relatives

 

Relative Pronouns and Relative Clauses 

 

Relative pronouns are words which are used to link two sentences or clauses that may have the same noun or pronoun.  Relative pronouns are used to introduce relative clauses.

 

Types of Relative Pronouns

  • Who
  • Whom
  • That
  • Which
  • Whose

 

Who

It is used to refer to the animate noun of the sentence. The noun in such cases is usually a person. The pronoun ‘who’ is used to refer to the doer of the action. In other words, it is used to refer to the subject.

 

Whom

It is used to refer to the animate noun of the sentence. The noun in such cases is usually a person. ‘Whom’ is used to refer to the person who receives the action. In other words, it is used to refer to the object.

 
That
It is used for referring to both animate and inanimate nouns. 
 
 
Which
It is used to refer to inanimate nouns.
 
 
In most cases, ‘that’ and ‘which’ are interchangeable. However, in formal usage, both have specific uses. ‘That’ and ‘which’ are used when the accompanying clause is crucial to the sentence. Removal of ‘which’ would render the sentence incomplete. 
 
  1. This is the boat that/which the fishermen found.
    This is the boat.
 
The pronoun ‘which’ can also be used to introduce a modifying clause that is not crucial to the sentence. It is separated from the rest of the sentence with the help of two commas. Removal of the clause will not effect any change in the meaning of the sentence.
 
        2. The notebook, which was kept on the table, was ripped to pieces by the pups.
            The notebook was ripped to pieces by the pups.
 
Whose
It is used to indicate possession by an animate noun or the pronoun.
 
 
 
Relative Adverbs
Some adverbs can function like relative pronouns. 
  • When
  • Where
  • Why
 
When 
It is used instead of the phrase ‘in/on which’.
 
 
Where 
It is used instead of the phrase ’at/on which’.
 
 
Why
It is used to replace the phrase ‘for which’.
 
 
Relative Clauses
Relative clauses are those that are introduced by a relative pronoun.
 
 
Types of Relative Clauses
  • Restrictive relative clause
  • Non-restrictive relative clause
 
Restrictive relative clause: It is a clause which describes the preceding noun in manner that distinguishes it from the rest of its kind. The clause is not separated from the rest of the sentence with commas.
 
 
Non-restrictive relative clause: It is a clause which is placed after the noun that is already defined.  The clause only provides additional information which is not important to the sentence.  It is separated from the rest of the sentence with the help of commas.
 
 
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