Explain that halogens are o-, p- directors, but are deactivating.

Asked by Topperlearning User | 1st Jun, 2016, 02:59: PM

Expert Answer:

The electronegative halogens inductively withdraw e-(s)from all the carbon atoms of the ring of the σ complex, and the o- , p- and m- benzonium ions each have a higher ∆Hthan that of the cation from benzene .The halogens have unshared electrons and can delocalize electron density to the o- and p-carbon atoms. Halogens are said to be Π-donating but σ - withdrawing.

Answered by  | 1st Jun, 2016, 04:59: PM