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NEET Class neet Answered

electric charges and field and flux
Asked by mamathakishore4862 | 03 Sep, 2021, 07:29: AM
Expert Answer
 Electric charges are of two types , i.e., having positive sign and negative sign .
 
SI units for charge is +Coulomb that is abbreviated as C
Fundamental magnitude of charge is charge on electron i.e. 1.602 × 10-19 C .
 
Charges of same sign repel each other and charges of opposite sign attracts each other.
 
Force between charges is given by Coulomb's law
 
F = K × ( q1 q2 ) / d2
 
where K = 1/(4π εo ) = 9 × 109 N m2 C-2 and εo is permittivity of free space.
 
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Electric field is force experienced by unit charge .
 
Since there is force of attraction or repulsion between charges that depends on their sign ,
 
charge distribution in space creates force on a test charge placed in region influenced by charge distribution.
 
This region influenced by charge distribution is known as electrostatic field .

 
Electric field strength or intensity of electric field is force experienced by unit test charge.
 
If a test charge q experiences a force F in electrostatic field , then intensity of electric field E is given as
 
E = F / q
 
SI unit of electric field is N/C
 
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Electric flux Φ in an area A  is defined  as    E × A = Φ , where E is uniform electric field in area A .
 
Using flux Φ , we describe electric field as Flux per unit area .
 
If electric field is not uniform , then flux Φ of electric field over a given area  is given as
 
begin mathsize 14px style ϕ space equals space double integral E times d A end style
where the integration is performed over given area A

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