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ICSE Class 9 Comprehension and Composition Revision Notes for Paragraph Writing

Introduction to Paragraph Writing


What is a Paragraph?

A paragraph is a short collection of well-organised sentences which revolve around a single theme and is coherent.


Parts of a Paragraph

  • Introduction: It constitutes the opening sentences of the paragraph. It introduces the main idea. Good introductions often capture the interest of the reader.
  • Body (Supporting Sentences): It constitutes the supporting sentences and ideas. It provides the reader with additional details about the main idea.
  • Conclusion: It ties up loose ends of the paragraph and helps in reiterating or highlighting the main idea.


Characteristics of a Well-written Paragraph

  • Concise: A good paragraph expresses everything it has to say briefly.
  • Unified: A paragraph revolves around a single idea. The first line of the paragraph often gives the main idea. All the other details support the main idea of the passage.
  • Sequenced: The sentences of the paragraph cannot be written haphazardly. The ideas progress in a sequential order.
  • Coherent: The sentences in the paragraph do not function independently. They are wellconnected to be readable. If a paragraph is not coherent, then it may sound illogical or clumsy to the reader.
  • Complete: A complete paragraph expresses everything without leaving any gaps as far as the information is concerned. It does not end abruptly without offering a sensible conclusion.



  • The sentences underlined in RED comprise the introduction of the paragraph. It simplifies or explains the idea given in the title for the reader.
  • The sentences underlined in PURPLE comprise the body of the paragraph. It provides all the information to support the main idea of the paragraph.
  • The sentences underlined in BLUE comprise the conclusion of the paragraph. It reiterates or highlights the main idea and the final opinion of the writer.
  • The paragraph conveys its main ideas briefly. It is therefore concise.
  • The entire paragraph focuses on a single idea. It therefore has unity.
  • In the paragraph, the ideas in the introduction are well connected to the body of the paragraph.
  • That in turn is connected to the conclusion of the paragraph. Connectives are added to connect the ideas smoothly and logically. It is therefore sequential and coherent.
  • The paragraph does not end abruptly. It repeats the idea that is explained in the beginning of the paragraph. By using closing sentences such as „The proverb therefore…‟, it puts emphasis on the writer‟s final opinion. The paragraph is therefore complete.
  • Hence, we can say that the above paragraph is well-written.


Types of Paragraphs

  • Descriptive Paragraph: As the name suggests, through the Descriptive Paragraph, the writer describes something to the reader. It may be based on what the writer has seen, heard or felt. The writer uses rich descriptions that appeals to the reader‟s senses. This helps the reader place himself in a world that the writer creates. 



  • Narrative Paragraph: This type of paragraph tells a story or an incident to the reader. In other words, it simply narrates a tale that is meaningful. Such paragraphs often follow a linear or a chronological order of narration.

    The following sample is taken from the novel “Mrs. Dalloway” by Virginia Woolf.

  • Expository Paragraph: This type of paragraph explains an instruction, a method or a process. The purpose of such a paragraph is to simply explain something to the reader. Often, the writer of such paragraphs does a lot of research on the topics he or she wishes to explain. The writer uses expository paragraphs to share the knowledge that he or she already has with the readers.