write any 5 properties of plasma(fourth state) and BOSE EINSTEIN CONDENSATE(fifth state of matter)

Asked by udayan Sarkhel | 14th Jun, 2013, 08:05: PM

Expert Answer:


Comparison of plasma and gas phases

Plasma is often called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquids and gases.[20] It is distinct from these and other lower-energy states of matter. Although it is closely related to the gas phase in that it also has no definite form or volume, it differs in a number of ways, including the following:

Electrical conductivity
Very low: Air is an excellent insulator until it breaks down into plasma at electric field strengths above 30 kilovolts per centimeter.
   Usually very high: For many purposes, the conductivity of a plasma may be treated as infinite.
Independently acting species
One: All gas particles behave in a similar way, influenced by gravity and by collisions with one another.
Two or three: Electrons, ions, protons and neutrons can be distinguished by the sign and value of their charge so that they behave independently in many circumstances, with different bulk velocities and temperatures, allowing phenomena such as new types of waves and instabilities.
Velocity distribution
Maxwellian: Collisions usually lead to a Maxwellian velocity distribution of all gas particles, with very few relatively fast particles.
Often non-Maxwellian: Collisional interactions are often weak in hot plasmas and external forcing can drive the plasma far from local equilibrium and lead to a significant population of unusually fast particles.
Interactions Binary: Two-particle collisions are the rule, three-body collisions extremely rare. Collective: Waves, or organized motion of plasma, are very important because the particles can interact at long ranges through the electric and magnetic forces

Answered by  | 18th Jun, 2013, 04:04: PM

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