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inductive effect for order of stability
Asked by mp797056 | 23 Oct, 2023, 04:23: PM
answered-by-expert Expert Answer
Electron displacement in covalent compounds is affected by Inductive effect: The process of electron displacement along the chain of carbon atoms due tothe presence of a polar covalent bond at one end of the chain is called the inductive effect (Ieffect); it is a permanent effect.Note: I-effect decreases on moving away from the atoms involved in the initial polar bond andbecomes negligible from the fourth atom onwards.
For comparing the relative effects, hydrogen is taken as a standard and the atoms or groups canbe classified into two categories:
Atoms or groups of atoms having electron-attracting more than hydrogen are referred to ashaving −I-effect (electron withdrawing or attracting).
Example: -NO2 > -CN >-COOH > -COOR > -F > -Cl> -Br > -I > -OH > -OCH3 > -C6H5 > -H
Atoms or groups of atoms having smaller electron attracting power than hydrogen are referredto as having +I-effect (electron donating or repelling).Example:
(CH3)3C- > (CH3)2CH- > CH3CH2- > CH3-
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