ICSE Class 9 Grammar Revision Notes for Phrases and Clauses
Phrases, Clauses and Sentences
Parts of a Sentence
A sentence is a group of words which makes complete sense. However, the sentence itself is made up of smaller elements called phrases and clauses.
Technically, words are the smallest units of a sentence. A group of words which has no subject or predicate is called a phrase. Grammatically, the phrase is the basic unit of English Grammar.
- A phrase can be a short group of words.
- It can also be a long group of words.
- Phrases represent various parts of speech.
Types of Phrases
- A phrase which functions as a noun in a sentence is called a noun phrase.
- The phrase comprises a noun along with one or more modifiers.
- A verb phrase contains both a verb and an auxiliary or helping verb.
- It may contain a direct or an indirect object.
- It is the main part of the predicate of the sentence.
- An adjective phrase is a group of words which functions as the adjective in the sentence.
- The main word in the phrase is the adjective.
- It is placed before a noun or as a part of the predicate of the sentence.
- An adverb phrase is a group of words which functions as the adverb in the sentence.
- It can modify either an adjective or another adverb in the sentence.
- A prepositional phrase comprises a preposition and a noun or a pronoun which functions as its object.
- The prepositional phrase may also contain modifiers.
- It may function as an adjective or an adverb in the sentence.
- An appositive is a word which is placed next to another word in order to explain it.
- An appositive phrase is nothing but a noun phrase which is used for modifying or explaining another word in the sentence.
- An infinitive phrase comprises an infinitive (to + verb) and modifiers and complements.
- The complement of an infinitive is its indirect object and its modifier is its adverb.
- They can act as adjectives, adverbs or nouns.
- Gerunds are words which end in ‘-ing’.
- They look like verbs but act like nouns.
- The gerund phrase comprises a gerund, its object and modifiers.
- It performs all the functions of a noun.
- Prepositional phrases are often part of gerund phrases.
- A participial phrase is an adjective phrase which comprises a participle (past or present) along with relevant complements and modifiers.
- It always functions as an adjective.
- It is separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma if they are used at the beginning of the sentence.
- It is separated from the rest of the sentence by two commas if it is used in between a sentence.
- An absolute phrase is a combination of a noun and a participle along with other complements and modifiers.
- It qualifies an entire sentence.
A clause is a group of related words which contains a subject and a predicate. Unlike a phrase, a clause is complete in meaning and can function as an independent sentence.
There are two basic types of clauses:
- Main clause
- Subordinate clause
The main clause contains a subject and a verb which can stand independently as a sentence.
The subordinate clause contains a subject and a verb, but unlike the main clause, it cannot stand independently as a sentence. It requires the support of the main verb in order to function properly.
Types of Subordinate Clauses
Adverb clauses can be further divided into 7 types:
Relationship between Phrases and Clauses
- Phrases are groups of words which act as parts of speech. When phrases come together, they form clauses.
- Clauses are simple sentences by themselves; however, two or more clauses can be joined together to form bigger sentences.
Grammar Chapters for Revision Notes
- Active and Passive Voice
- Subject- Verb Agreement
- Finites, Non-finites, Participles
- Avoiding Repetition
- Parts of Speech
- Synthesis of Sentences
- Transformation of Sentences
- Word forms
- Figures of Speech
- Homophones and Homonyms
- Synonyms and Antonyms
- Question Formation
- Idioms and Phrases
- Prefixes and Suffixes
- Direct and Indirect Speech
- Types of sentences (Form)
- Types of sentences (Meaning)