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ICSE Class 9 Grammar Revision Notes for Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct and Indirect Speech

 

What is Speech in Grammar?

 

The way the words of a speaker are expressed is called speech. There are two types of speech: 

  • Direct speech
  • Indirect speech

 

Direct Speech

Direct speech is where the exact words of a person are stated. 

 

Characteristics of Direct Speech

  • The speech is enclosed within quotation marks.



  • A comma (,) is used to separate the rest of the sentence from the speech in the quotations.



  • Sometimes, a colon (:) is used instead of the comma. This is done if the quote is formal in nature or is lengthy.



  • The tense of the speech within the quotations will not change no matter when it is spoken.



Indirect Speech

Indirect speech is where the words of the speaker are not reported in the exact manner in which they are said. 

 

Characteristics of Direct Speech

  • The speech is not enclosed within quotation marks.



  • The relative pronoun ‘that’ is used in the sentence instead of the comma.



  • The tense of the statement within the quotations may usually change into the past tense unless the statement is a fact.



  • The pronouns in the quoted speech will change in indirect speech.



  • The modal auxiliaries may also change in indirect speech.



  • For imperative and exclamatory sentences, the reported verb changes according to the nature of the sentence.



  • Adverbs of time and place change in indirect speech.



Rules for Tense Change in Indirect Speech

The tense of the verbs in the direct speech may change in indirect speech.

 

Rules for Changing Adverbs in Indirect Speech

Adverbs of place and time change in indirect speech.

 
Rules for Changing Modal Auxiliaries in Indirect Speech
Modal auxiliaries also undergo change when the sentence changes to indirect speech.
 
 
Modals such as would, could, might, should and ought to will not change in indirect speech.

Grammar Chapters for Revision Notes

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