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Explain valence bond theory in detail with the help of two examples.Also explain inner orbital and outer orbital complex with example.
pls ans this query

Asked by Shubhi Gupta 8th February 2016, 7:44 PM
Answered by Expert

Thanks for asking us a question in Ask the Expert section of

We cannot entertain more than 2 questions in a single query. In case of multiple questions within a query, please post each question individually and let us know where you are getting stuck so that we would be able to explain things better.

Answerto your first query is stated below:

Valence bond theory:

Assumptions of valence bond theory:

(i) It does not give quantitative interpretation of magnetic data.

(ii) It does not explain the colour exhibited by coordination compounds.

(iii) It does not give a quantitative interpretation of the thermodynamic or kinetic stabilities of coordination compounds.

(iv) It does not make exact predictions regarding the tetrahedral and square planar structures of 4-coordinate complexes.

(v) It does not distinguish between weak and strong ligands.


According to this theory, the metal atom or ion under the influence of

ligands can use its (n − 1)d, ns, np or ns, np or nd orbitals for hybridisation

to yield a set of equivalent orbitals of definite geometry such as octahedral, tetrahedral and square planar.


These hybridised orbitals are allowed to overlap with ligand orbitals which can donate electron pairs for bonding.


Coordination number

Type of hybridisation

Distribution of hybrid orbitals in space






Square planar



Trigonal bipyramidal


sp3d2 (nd orbitals are involved; outer orbital complex or high-spin or spin-free complex)



d2sp3 [(n − 1)d orbitals are involved; inner orbital complex or low-spin or spin-paired complex]




Topperlearning Team.
Answered by Expert 10th February 2016, 10:55 AM
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