CBSE Class 12-science Physics Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Reflection by Spherical Mirrors
2. All distances are measured from the pole of the mirror along the principal axis. Distances measured in the same direction as the incident light are positive.
3. Distances measured in the direction opposite to incident light are negative. m = image height / object height.
When m is positive, image is erect and when m is negative, the image is inverted.
Refraction by Plane Surfaces
Total Internal Reflection
Critical angle is the angle of incidence in the denser medium for which the angle of refraction in the rarer medium is 90 degree.
Important applications of total internal reflection include optical fibers and totally reflecting prisms.
Refraction by Spherical Surfaces
Refraction by Lens
2. Thin lens formula 1/v - 1/u = 1/f
3. Power = 1/focal length.
4. Power for a converging lens is positive and for a diverging lens is negative.
5. The effective focal length of combination of lens of focal length f1,f2,f3andhellip;andhellip;is f, where 1/f = 1/ f1 +1/f2 +1/f3 +.......
6. If m1,m2,m3...
Refraction and Dispersion by Prism
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