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CBSE Class 10 Physics Revision Notes for The Human Eye and The Colourful World

In CBSE Class 10, Physics is a combination of theoretical and practical knowledge. Physics can be one of the toughest subjects to understand. In the CBSE Class 10 Physics syllabus, there are crucial topics such as electricity, magnetic effects of electric current, refraction of light, etc. Through the Physical Practical Class 10 CBSE sessions, you dive deeper into how things work. TopperLearning presents study materials for CBSE Class 10 Physics which will help you to effectively prepare for your final examination. Our Physics study materials are prepared by subject experts and include video lessons, revision notes, question banks, sample papers and past years' question papers.

Knowledge of physics gained through theories and Science practicals for Class 10 CBSE Physics can be a stepping stone towards great career profiles such as a physicist or an inventor. Even if you do not want to pursue a career related to Physics, the concepts learned through your CBSE Class 10 Physics chapters can make you a smarter person.

To help you with Physics learning, we have prepared the best CBSE Class 10 Physics notes with concept videos. You will enjoy learning complex concepts with ease using our video lessons created by our Physics experts. Additionally, practice the questions from our CBSE Class 10 Physics Question Bank and sample papers to face your Physics exam with full confidence.

All these help students to score well in the examination. Our study materials contain educational resources which will help you to gain a better understanding of Physics. The content is revised from time to time following the latest guidelines of the CBSE syllabus. Additionally, we have introduced an ‘Ask the Expert’ facility, where all Physics doubts are instantly resolved by our subject matter experts. Students will also be able to understand all the difficult concepts by referring to our textbook solutions (such as NCERT and RD Sharma textbook solutions) which are free of cost. We are confident that students will find our learning materials helpful to achieve greater amount of success in the CBSE Class 10 examination.  



Human Eye and the Colourful World

Human Eye

  • The human eye is an important and valuable sense organ which uses light and enables us to see the colourful world around us.

  • The various parts of the human eye and their respective functions include
Part Function
 Cornea  Protective layer of the eye
Refraction of light rays entering the eye 
Eye lens Adjust the focal length and form an inverted image of the object on the retina
Pupil Regulates the amount of light entering the eye
 Iris  Controls the size of the pupil 
Retina  Acts as a screen for forming the image 
Ciliary muscles  Adjust the thickness of the lens
Optic nerves   Send signals to the brain


  •  The image of any object seen persists on the retina for begin mathsize 11px style fraction numerator 1 th over denominator 16 end fraction end style of a second, even after the removal of the object. This continuance of sensation on the eye for some time is called persistence of vision. 
  • The numerous light-sensitive cells contained in the retina of the eye are of two types: 
  • Rod-shaped cells which respond to the brightness or intensity of light. 
  • Cone-shaped cells which respond to the colour of light.


Power of Accommodation of the Human Eye

  • Power of accommodation of the eye is the ability of the eye to observe distinctly the objects, situated at widely different distances from the eye, on account of change in the focal length of the eye lens by the action of the ciliary muscles holding the lens. 
  • The farthest point up to which the eye can see objects clearly is called the far point (F) of the eye. It is ideally infinity for a normal eye.  
  • The point of closest distance at which an object can be seen clearly by the eye is called the near point (N) of the eye. For a normal eye, the near point is 25 cm, which is called the least distance of distinct vision (d) of a normal eye. 
  • The distance between the far point (F) and near point (N) is called the range of vision of the eye.

Defects of Vision

  • Myopia or Short-Sightedness
    A person with myopia can see nearby objects clearly but cannot see distant objects distinctly, as if the far point of the eye has shifted from infinity to some particular distance from the eye.


This defect may arise due to (i) excessive curvature of the eye lens or (ii) elongation of the eyeball.  To correct myopia, the person has to wear spectacles with a concave lens of focal length equal to the distance of far point of the myopic eye.

Hypermetropia or Long-Sightedness
A person with hypermetropia can see objects lying at large distances clearly but cannot see nearby objects clearly, as if the near point of the eye has shifted away from the eye. 


This defect may arise because (i) focal length of the eye lens is too long or (ii) the eyeball has become too small. To correct hypermetropia, the person has to wear spectacles with a convex lens of focal length f, given  by begin mathsize 11px style straight f equals fraction numerator straight x apostrophe straight d over denominator straight x minus straight d end fraction end style, where d is the least distance of distinct vision and x′ is the distance of near point N of the  hypermetropic eye.



  • Presbyopia is a human eye defect because of which an old person cannot read and write comfortably. 
  • It occurs in old age when the ciliary muscles holding the eye lens weaken and the eye lens loses some of its flexibility. 
  • To correct presbyopia, an old person has to wear spectacles with a convex lens of suitable focal length (as in hypermetropia).

Sometimes, a person may suffer from both myopia and hypermetropia. Such a person requires bi-focal lenses. The upper part of a bi-focal lens consists of concave lens facilitating distant vision, and the lower part consists of convex lens facilitating nearby vision.

Dispersion of Light

  • Dispersion of light is the phenomenon of splitting of a beam of white light into its seven constituent colours on passing through a glass prism.


  • The band of coloured components of a light beam is called its spectrum. 
  • The sequence of colours given by the prism is Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red. VIBGYOR is the acronym for this sequence. 
  • The cause of dispersion is that different colours of white light with different wavelengths undergo different deviations on passing through a glass prism. 
  • If a second identical prism is placed in an inverted position with respect to the first prism, all the seven colours recombine to form white light.
  • The rainbow is a beautiful example of dispersion of light in nature. Sunlight gets dispersed on passing through tiny droplets of water suspended in air during or after a shower. 


Atmospheric Refraction

  • Atmospheric refraction is the phenomenon of bending of light on passing through the Earth’s atmosphere. This reason for this occurrence is that the upper layers of the Earth’s atmosphere are rarer compared to the lower layers. 
  • On account of atmospheric refraction of light, 
  • The stars seem higher than they actually are. 
  • The Sun appears to rise 2 minutes before and set 2 minutes later, increasing the apparent length of the day by 4 minutes.
  • The Sun appears oval at sunrise and sunset, but appears circular at noon. 
  •  The stars twinkle and planets do not.

Scattering of Light

  • The phenomenon in which a part of the light incident on a particle is redirected in different directions is called scattering of light. 
  • When the size of the scatterer (x) is very much less than the wavelength (λ) of light, Rayleigh scattering is valid. The intensity of scattered light (Is) varies inversely as the fourth power of wavelength (λ) of incident light.

begin mathsize 11px style straight I straight s equals fraction numerator 1 over denominator straight lambda 4 end fraction end style

  • The phenomenon of scattering of light by colloidal particles is called the Tyndall effect.  
  • On the basis of scattering, we can account for the: 

Physics Chapters for Revision Notes

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