CBSE Class 10 Physics Revision Notes for Electricity

In CBSE Class 10, Physics is a combination of theoretical and practical knowledge. Physics can be one of the toughest subjects to understand. In the CBSE Class 10 Physics syllabus, there are crucial topics such as electricity, magnetic effects of electric current, refraction of light, etc. Through the Physical Practical Class 10 CBSE sessions, you dive deeper into how things work. TopperLearning presents study materials for CBSE Class 10 Physics which will help you to effectively prepare for your final examination. Our Physics study materials are prepared by subject experts and include video lessons, revision notes, question banks, sample papers and past years' question papers.

Knowledge of physics gained through theories and Science practicals for Class 10 CBSE Physics can be a stepping stone towards great career profiles such as a physicist or an inventor. Even if you do not want to pursue a career related to Physics, the concepts learned through your CBSE Class 10 Physics chapters can make you a smarter person.

To help you with Physics learning, we have prepared the best CBSE Class 10 Physics notes with concept videos. You will enjoy learning complex concepts with ease using our video lessons created by our Physics experts. Additionally, practice the questions from our CBSE Class 10 Physics Question Bank and sample papers to face your Physics exam with full confidence.

All these help students to score well in the examination. Our study materials contain educational resources which will help you to gain a better understanding of Physics. The content is revised from time to time following the latest guidelines of the CBSE syllabus. Additionally, we have introduced an ‘Ask the Expert’ facility, where all Physics doubts are instantly resolved by our subject matter experts. Students will also be able to understand all the difficult concepts by referring to our textbook solutions (such as NCERT and RD Sharma textbook solutions) which are free of cost. We are confident that students will find our learning materials helpful to achieve greater amount of success in the CBSE Class 10 examination.  

 

 

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Electricity

Electric Current 

  • Electric current is expressed as the amount of charge flowing through a particular area in unit time.
  •  Quantitatively, electric current is defined as the rate of flow of electric charge.
 begin mathsize 12px style Current space straight I fraction numerator Charge space flowing space left parenthesis straight Q right parenthesis over denominator space Time space taken space left parenthesis straight t right parenthesis end fraction end style
  • The S.I. unit of current is ampere (A), where 1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second. 
  • 1 mA = 10−3 A, 1 μA = 10−6
  • The conventional direction of electric current is the one in which positive charges move orderly.


Electric Potential Different

  • Electric potential difference (pd) between two points in an electric circuit, carrying some current, is the amount of work done to move a unit charge from one point to another. 

 

 begin mathsize 12px style Potential space difference comma space pd space fraction numerator Work space done space left parenthesis straight W right parenthesis over denominator space Quanity space of space charge space moved space left parenthesis straight Q right parenthesis space end fraction end style 

  •  The S.I. unit of pd is volt (V), where 1 volt = 1 joule/coulomb.


Electric Circuit

  • A continuous conducting path between the terminals of a source of electricity is called an electric circuit. 
  • A drawing showing the way various electric devices are connected in a circuit is called a circuit diagram. 
  • Some commonly used circuit elements are given below:
 Sr. No. Element Symbol 
1 An electric cell   
2 A battery  
3 Plug key or switch (open)  
4 Plug key or switch (closed)  
5 A wire joint   
6 Wires crossing without joining  
7 Bulb  
8 Resistor  
9 Variable resistor or Rheostat   
10 Ammeter   
11 Voltmeter  

 

Ohm’s law

  • According to Ohm’s law, the current (I) flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) across its ends, provided its physical conditions remain the same.
    V∞I
    V/ I =Constant
    V/ I = R
    V = IR
    where R is a constant of proportionality called resistance of the conductor. 
  • Resistance is the property of a conductor to resist the flow of charges through it. 
  • The S.I. unit of resistance is ohm (Ω).
begin mathsize 11px style From space space straight I straight V over straight R space comma space 1 space ohm space equals space 1 space volt divided by ampere end style

 Resistivity

  • The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (l) and inversely proportional to its area of cross section (A). R ∞ l/ A
    R = ρ l/A
    where ρis a constant of proportionality called specific resistance or resistivity of the material of the conductor.
  • The S.I. unit of resistivity is ohm metre (Ωm).

 

Combination of Resistances
Resistances in Series

  • The current flowing through each resistance is the same. 
  • The potential difference across the ends of the series combination is distributed across the resistances. 
  • The equivalent resistance (Rs) of a series combination containing resistances R1, R2, R3... is Rs 1 2 3 R1+ R2 +R3 + R ...  
  • The equivalent resistance is greater than the greatest resistance in the combination.


Resistances in Parallel

  • The potential difference across each resistance is the same and is equal to the potential difference across the combination. 
  • The main current divides itself, and a different current flows through each resistance. 
  • The equivalent resistance (Rp) of a parallel combination containing resistances R1, R2, R3... is given by
    begin mathsize 11px style fraction numerator 1 over denominator straight R straight p end fraction equals fraction numerator 1 over denominator straight R 1 end fraction plus fraction numerator 1 over denominator straight R 2 end fraction plus fraction numerator 1 over denominator straight R 3 end fraction plus.... end style

  • The equivalent resistance is lesser than the least of all the resistances in the combination


Heating Effect of Electric Current

  • The effect of electric current due to which heat is produced in a conductor, when current passes through it, is called the heating effect of electric current. 
  • The total work (W) done by the current in an electric circuit is called electric energy and is given as
    W = VIt = I²Rt
    W = V² t /R
    This energy is exhibited as heat. Thus, we have 2 H VIt I2 Rt. 
  • This is called Joule’s Law of Heating, which states that the heat produced in a resistor is directly proportional to the 
  • Square of the current in the resistor 
  • Resistance of the resistor 
  •  Time for which the current flows through the resistance


Practical Applications of the Heating Effects of Electric Current

  • Electrical appliances like laundry iron, toaster, oven, kettle and heater are some devices based on Joule’s Law of Heating.
  • The concept of electric heating is also used to produce light, as in an electric bulb. 
  • Another application of Joule’s Law of Heating is the fuse used in electric circuits.


Electric Power

  • Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is produced or consumed in an electric circuit
    P = VI = I²R
    P = V²/R 
  • The S.I. unit of power is watt (W). 
  • One watt of power is consumed when 1 A of current flows at a potential difference of 1 V. 
    The commercial unit of electric energy is kilowatt hour (kWh), commonly known as a unit.  1 kWh = 3.6 MJ 

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