please guide me experts. please tell me some easy working model related to electricity. my friends had made modelslike multiple generator , opame , bridge rectifier,half deflection bridge,light dependent resistor etc.please tell me something like this and as soon as possible.

Asked by Ayushi Tarey | 10th Jan, 2013, 11:08: PM

Expert Answer:



Properties of zener diode


Zener is a semiconductor diode which is specially used for the regulation of the DC supply. Just like the general diode this has also a PN junction but its electrical characteristics are different from the characteristics of general purpose diode. Its basic structure and the symbol are given below –


Symbol and characteristics of zener diode

          To obtain the characteristics of zener diode, the graph is plotted in I and III quadrants. In I quadrant the anode is positive and the cathode is negative. In this condition the current through the zener forward biases it, at a very small voltage (about 0.6V or 0.7V). The current through it steeply increases as shown in the above diagram. However in III quadrant, when anode is negative and cathode is positive. In this case the diode works in breakdown region and the voltage on its cathode remains always equal to the zener voltage irrespective of the change in the supply voltage. In this condition, the current through the zener is almost parallel to y-axis and current is called as the avalanche current or Zener current (Iz).

Formula –




Specifications of components –



Type of component





 Zener diode




47W, ½W, carbon composition, ±5% tolerance

color _________ , VF = ________

1N4001 rectifier diode

5.6V, 400mW zener diode

1000mF/25V electrolytic capacitor

6V–0V–6V, 500mA secondary transformer

170V to 270V variable dimmerstat


Procedure –


1)    Switch on the circuit and keep its line voltage at 170VAC, with the help of dimmerstat.

2)    Be careful while using the dimmerstat, as it carries dangerously high voltage.

3)    Measure the output voltage of the circuit in this position of dimmerstat.

4)    Repeat the above procedure as per given in observation table.

5)    Plot a graph of line voltage versus output DC voltage. 

6)    Calculate percentage line regulation using the given formula. 


Brief theory – the zener diode is used to regulate the voltage across a load when there are variations in the power supply voltage or load current. The zener regulator circuit is connected between the output of the bridge rectifier with filter and the load.

            The zener regulator consists of a current limiting resistor (Rs) connected in series with the input voltage of power supply (Vin) and the zener diode is connected in parallel with the load. The zener diode is reverse biased. it is selected with a breakdown voltage (Vz) equal to the voltage desired across the load. The value of series resistor can be calculated using the formula –


            As long as the (Vin) is greater than (Vz), the zener diode operates in the breakdown region and output voltage remains constant.


Answered by  | 11th Jan, 2013, 11:52: AM

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