How can find the type of hybridisation for the central atom?

Asked by Hasan Kohada | 10th Jan, 2014, 11:22: AM

Expert Answer:

  1. Draw the Lewis structure of the molecule.
  2. Determine the number of groups (bonds) around the central metal atom and the number of lone pairs on the central metal.
  3. The valence shell configuration of the central atom should also be known.

 

For example: In C2H4, the carbon atom is surrounded by 3 groups. The valence shell configuration of C is 2s2p2. Therefore, one s and two p orbitals are mixed to give 3 sp2 hybrid orbitals.

There is one more method which applies to some molecules for determining the hybridization.

 

Hybridisation is given by the formula:

H=1/2[ V + X - C + A]

Where V= number of valence electrons in central atom, X=number of monovalent atoms around the central atom, C= +ve charge on cation and A= -ve charge on anion

For example in H2SO4, to find the hybridization of sulphur:

V = 6, X = 2, C = 0, A = 0

H = ½[6+2] = 4 = sp3

In above structure, the two oxygen atoms are considered as coordinated bonded and treated as single bond. Use the following table to match the possible values of H with the corresponding hybridisation

 

If , n=2 hybridisation is sp

n=3 hybridisation is sp2

n=4 hybridisation is sp3

n=5 hybridisation is sp3d

n=6 hybridisation is sp3d2

Answered by Hanisha Vyas | 14th Jan, 2014, 12:09: PM

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