Explain the method to grasp and remember hybidized orbitals shape?

Asked by Vipul Kaushik | 9th Oct, 2010, 03:21: PM

Expert Answer:

By using formulae:
X= (m+v-c+a)/2
Where,
m = No. of monovalent atoms surrounding the central atom
v = No. of valence electrons in central atom
c and a = cationic or anionic charge (if any)

Instructions:

Collect Data on the Electrons Present in the Molecule

Step 1: Determine which atom is the central atom of the molecule. The central atom is always the most negatively charged atom in the molecule that is neither a halogen nor hydrogen.
Step 2:Determine how many monovalent atoms surround this central atom. A monovalent atom is one that combines with only a single atom to form a molecule.
Step 3: Determine how many valence electrons this central atom has. The valence electrons are the electrons on the outer most shell of the atom.
Step 4: Determine the exact cationic and anionic charges of the entire molecule. Cationic and anionic charges describe the overall positive or negative charge of an atom, with cationic representing the positive charges and anionic representing the negative charges.

Calculate the Hybridization Orbitals
X=2=sp
X=3=sp2
X=4=sp3
X=5=sp3d
X=6=sp3d2
X=7=sp3d3
For example,
BF3
Boron is central atoms and has 3 (v=3) valence electron and 3 atoms (m=3) of fluorine surrounding the central atom.
hence,
v=3
m=3
cation and anion charge is not present so, c=0 and a=0
now, x=1/2(3+3-0+0)=3
and for x=3, hybridised shape is SP2

Answered by  | 9th Oct, 2010, 04:22: PM

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