FRANK Solutions for Class 9 Biology Chapter 5 - Vegetative Propagation
Chapter 5 - Vegetative Propagation Exercise 49
Two parent plants are selected of which one parent has the desired characters. On the female plant, emasculation is carried out i.e. stamens are removed to prevent undesirable fertilization. Then pollen of the male plant is collected and artificially brushed on stigma of emasculated flower. The emasculated flower is kept bagged before and after fertilization to prevent any unwanted cross pollination. After pollination, fertilization takes place and seeds of desired variety are produced.
(i) Vegetative propagation is helpful in the improvement of food crops, cash crops and ornamentals.
(ii) Plants raised through vegetative propagation are totally identical to the parent plants (clones) and are genetically similar.
(iii) Vegetative propagation is the only method to multiply those plants where seed formation does not occur.
(iv) This is a cheaper, convenient and rapid method of plant multiplication.
(v) It is the only method of reproduction in plants like grapes, roses, Chrysanthemums, pineapples etc. which do not form viable seeds i.e. seeds do not germinate.
(i) Development of hybrid vigour
(ii) Accumulation of desired traits of two or more plants in a single hybrid.
Plant hybridization is beneficial to us in the following ways:
(i) It is useful in obtaining clones and genetic experimental plants.
(ii) It is a quick and convenient method.
(iii) Hybrid plants are stronger than either parent plant in general and have a higher yield.
(iv) Crop plants giving a much higher yield can be developed using this technique.
(v) Plants resistant to diseases, pests and climatic factors can be produced by hybridization with desired plants or wild species.
(vi) The hybrid plants (especially ornamentals) have more colourful or fragrant flowers that enhance their commercial value.
(i) A method in which roots are induced on the stem while it is still attached to the parent plant is called
(ii) Grafting is not possible in the monocots because they
(a) have scattered vascular
(b) have parallel venation
(c) lack cambium
(d) are herbaceous
(iii) The form of vegetative reproduction of plants where seeds are formed without fusion of gametes is called
(iv) The plants produced as a result of vegetative reproduction are
(a) genetically similar to parent plants
(b) both genetically and morphologically similar to parent-plants
(c) dissimilar, both genetically and morphologically
(d) none of these
(ii) (c) lack cambium
(iii) (a) agamospermy
(iv) (b) both genetically and morphologically similar to parent-plants
(i) Vegetative propagation is the only method to obtain new plants in those plants where seed formation does not occur.
(ii) This method is cheaper, convenient and rapid method of plant multiplication.
(iii) It is the only method of reproduction in plants like grapes, roses, pineapple etc. which do not form viable seeds.
(iv) Plants raised through vegetative propagation from a single plant form a genetically uniform population called a clone.
Plants propagated through stem cuttings are:
(Write any four of each)
(b) Grafting - Here a detached part of one plant called scion, is inserted into the stem of a rooted plant called stock. Scion is a short piece of detached shoot containing several buds. After a few days, vascular connection is established between the joined parts and parenchyma tissue develops at the junction of the graft. Examples of plants in which grafting is carried out are apple, pear, mango and guava.
(c) Layering - In layering, an intact branch is bent into the soil and is covered with moist soil. The growing tip remains above the soil. When roots arise in the branch region in contact with soil, it is separated from the parent plant. Within a few weeks, a new plant can be propagated by this method. Examples of plants in which layering is carried out are cherry, jasmine and grapevine.
(e) China rose
(b) Stem cutting
(e) Stem cutting
(d) Underground stem
(b) Agave/ Oxalis
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