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CBSE Class 12 commerce Indian Economic Development

Indian Economic Development talks about production, distribution and economic activities which relate to the people of the country and determines their standard of living. TopperLearning’s CBSE 12 Commerce Economics solutions help students to understand the key concepts of the economy in order to ace their exams. The study solutions are furnished with sample papers, past years' papers, video lessons etc. which help students to understand the subject better.

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List of chapters

Chapter 1 – Indian Economy on the Eve of Independence

This chapter gives an overview of the state of the Indian economy in 1947 at the time of Independence. It also highlights the key factors which led to India's backward state and stagnation.

Chapter 2 – Indian Economy 1950–1990

This chapter covers the goals of the five-year plans set by the Planning Commission. It also covers an overview of the different policies adopted by the government during the planning period aiming at the development of agriculture, industry and trade.

Chapter 3 – Economic Reforms since 1991

The balance of payments crisis in 1991 led to the introduction of economic reforms by India, and India announced the New Economic Policy. We also understand the major reforms taken under the policies of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation and their impact on the Indian economy. 
Demonetisation and GST, the two recent decisions taken by the government, are also part of the economic reforms since 1991. You will learn more about them in this chapter.

Chapter 4 – Poverty

This chapter describes the problem of poverty in India, how it is estimated and the government’s efforts to tackle or alleviate the problem of poverty through its poverty alleviation programmes. Critical evaluation of existing poverty alleviation programmes is also covered in this chapter.

Chapter 5 – Human Capital Formation

This chapter familiarises you with the concept of human capital, its sources and how its formation contributes to economic growth. You are also given a bird’s eye view of the state of human capital formation in India and the importance of government expenditure on health and the education sector in India.

Chapter 6 – Rural Development

This chapter deals with the major issues faced in the rural areas and the importance of rural development in India. It also discusses the critical role of agricultural credit and marketing in rural development, the need and importance for diversification to allied activities and the importance of organic farming in sustainable development.

Chapter 7 – Employment: Growth, Informalisation and Other Issues

You will get familiar with the basic terms related to employment, the nature of participation of men and women in economic activities in various sectors in India, informalisation of the workforce in India, the problem and extent of unemployment in India and the role of the government in employment generation.

Chapter 8 – Infrastructure

You will understand the concept of infrastructure and the types of infrastructure along with its importance in economic development. Gain in-depth understanding of the state of energy and health infrastructure in India along with their challenges.

Chapter 9 – Environment and Sustainable Development

You will understand the concept of environment, the cause and effect of environmental degradation, the global environmental issues of global warming and ozone depletion. You will also learn about the concept and need for sustainable development and its strategies.

Chapter 10 – Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours

In this chapter, we compare India's development experiences, strategies for development, key indicators and achievements with two of its important and strategic neighbouring countries China and Pakistan.

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Why should I study from TopperLearning?

TopperLearning’s CBSE Class 12 study materials include video lessons, subject notes, sample papers, previous years’ question papers and more. To study the concepts in the chapters, you need to create a plan by first going through the latest syllabus and then get into action.

Prepare your study timetable for each subject. Allot time for reading our study materials such as chapter notes. These notes will quickly take you through the key points of each chapter in the syllabus. The next step is to revise the chapters as much as possible. Also, avoid relying on mindless mugging, as understanding is imperative here.

To score more marks, practise the model answers for all the numerical questions/application-based questions etc. in our study materials. Finally, test your knowledge by using our online self-assessment resources.


Where can I find the important questions for the CBSE Class 12 exam?

Our Most Important Questions or MIQs are a dedicated section which lists only the important questions and topics for the exam.

Will this help me score more?

TopperLearning’s intense practice and revision-based study materials ensure that if students follow every instruction, they will clear their exams with flying colours.

I’m in CBSE Class 12. What should I read for exam revision?

You can read the chapter summaries or the revision notes for a quick brush up before your exams.

If I find a concept difficult to understand, whom should I ask?

If you struggle to understand a concept, you can refer to our video lessons. And if you still have some doubts, you can use the Ask the Expert forum.

Is TopperLearning equipped enough to help me?

TopperLearning has 950+ video lessons, 200+ revision notes, 8500+ questions and 15+ sample papers (including CBSE Class 12 sample papers 2019) for CBSE students. The study materials at TopperLearning are designed to give you clarity of the concepts that you study in class.