Everything related to functional groups and placing of different functional groups in the structure along with their examples of being used in different compounds structures?(thank you)

Asked by Amarnath | 14th Jan, 2016, 07:55: PM

Expert Answer:

Functional Groups

  • All organic compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons.
  • Derivatives are obtained by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by some other atom or group of atoms called functional groups.
  • The new set of compounds is formed after replacement has functions different from the parent hydrocarbon.
  • Definition: An atom or a group of atoms present in the molecules, which determines the characteristics property of the organic compounds, is called the functional group.

Functional group

General formulae

Organic compound

Suffix

Examples with common & IUPAC name

Halide-X

(F,Cl,Br,I)

 R-X

Haloalkanes

-ane

CH3Cl

Common name: Methyl chloride

IUPAC name: Chloromethane

Hydroxyl-OH

R-OH

Alcohols

-ol

C2H5OH

Common name : Ethyl alcohol

IUPAC name: Ethanol

Aldehyde-CHO

 

Aldehydes

-al

CH3CHO

Common name: Acetaldehyde

IUPAC name: Ethanal

Carboxyl-COOH

 

Carboxylic acids

-oic acid

CH3CH2COOH

Common name: Propionic acid

IUPAC name: Propanoic acid

Keto

 

Ketones

-one

CH3COC2H5

Common name: Diethyl ketone

IUPAC name: Pentanone

Ethers

 

R-O-R’

Ethers

-oxy

CH3 – O – C2H5

Common name: Ethyl methyl ether

IUPAC name: Methoxy ethane

 Nomenclature of Functional groups

 

 

Answered by Hanisha Vyas | 15th Jan, 2016, 02:56: PM