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CBSE Class 10 Answered

1)Difference between diamond properties and Graphite?Why doesnt diamond have free electrons like as graphite? 2)why cant be fullerence formed in another shape rather than football(C60 atoms)?
Asked by gsvjairam | 17 Apr, 2022, 11:32: AM
Expert Answer
Diamond, graphiute and fullerene, three of them are allotropes of carbon.
 
(1)  

Differences between diamond and graphite:
(a) Diamond is denser than graphite. The density of diamond is 3.514g cm-3 while that of graphite is 2.226 g cm-3.

(b) Diamond is hard while graphite is soft. Graphite has lubricating properties.

(c)Diamond is a bad conductor of electricity while graphite is a good conductor of electricity.

(d)Diamond is extremely chemically unreactive whereas graphite is quite reactive.

In diamond each carbon atom is surrounded by four other carbon atoms bonded by four covalent bonds. While in graphite, each carbon atom is surrounded by three other carbon atoms. One of the three bonds is double bond. Therefore, out of the four valence electrons in a carbon atom, only three are used for bonding and the fourth is relatively free and can move from one carbon atom to the other. These free electrons can carry electricity and make graphite a good conductor of electricity.

(2) 
C60 molecule is a perfect sphere and looks like a soccer ball and is also popularly known as bucky-ball.
It contains twenty six- membered rings and twelve five membered rings.
A six membered ring is fused with six or five membered rings but a five membered ring can only fuse with six membered rings. Spherical form is stable.
Each carbon atom forms three sigma bonds with other three carbon atoms.
The remaining electron at each carbon is delocalised in molecular orbitals, which in turn give aromatic character to molecule.
This ball shaped molecule has 60 vertices and each one is occupied by one carbon atom and it also contains both single and double bonds.

 
 
 

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