Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 5 - Heat - Calorimetry
Frank Textbook Solutions Chapter Unit - 5 - Heat - Calorimetry
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Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 5 - Heat - Calorimetry Page/Excercise 247
Thermal energy is energy that is powered by a heat source. For e.g.: an electric heater generates thermal energy that can be used to warm a cold room in the winter.
Yes, heat is a form of energy.
Temperature is a physical property that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. It is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment.
The SI unit of heat energy is joule (J).
1 joule is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance, that has specific heat capacity 1J/kgK, through 1oC.
1 J = 4.2 cal. So, 1 joule is bigger than 1 calorie.
A thermometer is used to measure temperature.
Temperature is the physical quantity that measures the degree of hotness.
Its energy increases on heating.
Gas molecules have very weak or no bonds at all and the spaces between gas molecules are very large. So, the molecules of a gas move about freely.
Two scales for measuring temperature are
i. Celsius scale
ii. Fahrenheit scale
'Liquid-in-glass' kind of thermometer is commonly used.
Doctor's thermometer is also called Clinical thermometer.
Celsius scale and Fahrenheit scale are two commonly used scales of temperature because the former is based on the freezing point of water as 0oC and boiling point of water as 100oC. The same points on the Fahrenheit scale are 32oF and 212oF.
The normal body temperature of a healthy person is 37oC.
Lower fixed point = 32oF
Upper fixed point = 212oF
In Celsius scale, melting point of ice and boiling point of water are referred as "lower fixed point" and "upper fixed point" respectively. The temperature difference between the reference points is divided into 100 divisions and each division is called "one degree Celsius" (1oC). Thus, the melting point of ice is taken as 0oC and the boiling point as 100oC.
Frank Modern Certificate Solution for Class 10 Physics Chapter Unit - 5 - Heat - Calorimetry Page/Excercise 248
Absolute zero is the temperature at which volume or pressure of an ideal gas becomes nil. It is 0 degrees on the Kelvin scale, which translates to -273oC (or -459.4oF).
SI unit of:
i. Amount of heat - joule
ii. Heat Capacity - joule per Kelvin
iii. Specific Heat Capacity - joule per kilogram per Kelvin
Specific heat capacity of water is 4200 Jkg-1K-1.
This means that 4200 J of heat is required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1K.
(i) In cooling - Water is used in the cooling systems of automobiles and other engines.
(ii) As heat reservoir - In cold countries, water is used as a reservoir for wine and juice to avoid their freezing. The reason is that water can provide more heat to the bottles due to its high specific heat capacity. Hence, they do not cool down further to freeze.
A calorimeter is a device used to measure the quantity of heat transferred to or from an object.
It is made of copper because:
i. Copper is a good conductor of heat so it attains the temperature of its contents in a very short time.
ii. It has low specific heat (390 Jkg-1K-1). Therefore, it will take only a very little part of the heat energy given out in the experiment.
Farmers fill their fields with water on a cold winter night to protect the crops from frost. In the absence of water, if on a cold night the temperature of the surroundings fall below 00C, then the veins of the plants shall freeze. Due to anomalous expansion of water, ice shall occupy more volume than water. As a result of this expansion, veins shall burst and crops shall be destroyed. But water sprinkled on the crops shall not allow the temperature of the veins to fall below 00C.
Heat capacity of a body is the quantity of heat required to raise its temperature by 1oC. It depends upon the mass and the nature of the body.
Units: J/oC or calorie/oC
Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of the substance by 1oC.
Units: j/kgK or calorie/g oC
The specific heat capacity of water (4200 J Kg-1 K-1) is about five times as that of sand. Due to which water takes long time to get heated up and equally long time to get cooled. Thus, large temperature difference between the land and the sea causes formation of land and sea breezes.
Principle of Calorimetry:
When a hot body is mixed or kept in contact with a cold body, there is a transfer of heat from hot body to cold body such that
Total heat gained by colder body = Total heat lost by the hot body,
if there is no loss of heat to the surroundings.
Water is used as an effective coolant since it has a high value of specific heat capacity (4200 J kg-1K-1).
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