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Class 9 SELINA Solutions Biology Chapter 3 - Tissues: Plant And Animal Tissues

Tissues: Plant And Animal Tissues Exercise Ex. 1

Solution A.1(a)

(iii) Parenchyma

Solution A.1(b)

(iii) Fibrous connective tissue

Solution A.1(c)

(i) Meristem- Actively dividing cells

Solution A.1(d)

(iv) Chlorenchyma 

Solution A.1(e)

(iv) Layers of xylem in a stem 

Solution A.1(f)

(iv) Sclerenchyma 

Solution A.1(g)

(iii) Tendon

Solution A.1(h)

(iv) Glandular epithelium

Solution A.1(i)

(ii) Apical meristem

Solution A.1(j)

(iv) Involuntary and striated

Solution B.1

(a) Apical or terminal meristematic tissue

(b) Protective tissue

(c) Columnar epithelium (Epithelial tissue)

(d) Ligament (Connective tissue)

(e) Conducting tissue

(f) Sclerenchyma (Supporting tissue)

Solution B.2

The least specialized tissue in plants is parenchyma. It is located in the stem, roots, and fruits of the plant.

Solution B.3

(a) Tissue

(b) Parenchyma

(c) Lateral cambium (Lateral meristem)

Solution B.4

(a) Tips of roots

(b) Nose

(c) Lining of mouth

(d) Veins of leaves

(e) Lining of trachea

(f) Bones

Solution B.5

(a)  Cuboidal epithelium

(b) Neuron

(c) Squamous epithelium

(d) Ciliated columnar epithelium

Solution C.1

Ciliated columnar epithelium is found in the lining of trachea. This epithelium has thread-like projections called cilia at their free ends. The cilia constantly keep lashing and move the materials which enter this organ.

Solution C.2

(a) Tissue: Tissues are groups of cells that have a similar structure and act together to perform a specific function in a living organism.

(b) Organ: An organ is a group of tissues that have been adapted to perform a specific function in a living organism.

(c) Organ system: An organ system is a group of organs that collaborate to perform a specific life process in a living organism.

(d) Lymph: Lymph is the fluid circulating through the lymphatic system of the body and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases.

(e) Neuron: Neurons are specialized, elongated cells within the nervous tissue that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscles, or gland cells.

Solution C.3

(a) Sclerenchyma: Found in the stems and veins of the leaves

(b) Collenchyma: Found in the leaf stalks and below the epidermis of stems

(c) Ciliated columnar epithelium: Found in the lining of the trachea (windpipe)

(d) Cardiac muscles: Found in the walls of the heart

Solution C.4

(1) Muscular tissue (Cardiac muscles)

(2) Epithelial tissue (Lining of blood vessels of the heart)

(3) Connective tissue (Fluid connective tissue in the form of red blood corpuscles)

Solution C.5

A tissue is a group of similar cells from the same origin that together carry out a specific function. An egg is a zygote or a cell but a cluster of eggs cannot be considered as a tissue as it does not form an organ like a tissue. Instead it gives rise to a new individual organism if gets fertilised. 

Solution C.6

(1) Striated muscles: Provide the force for locomotion and all voluntary movements of the body. These muscles are found in the limbs.

(2) Unstriated muscles: Provide movements for the passage of food in the intestines. These muscles are found in iris of the eye, lining of blood vessels, urinary bladder, etc.

(3) Cardiac muscles: Provide rhythmic contraction and relaxation movements. These muscles are found only in the heart.

Solution D.1

(a) Differences between Parenchyma and Collenchyma (cellular structure):



Consist of thin-walled, oval, circular or polygonal cells

Consist of thick-walled and elongated cells

(b) Differences between Meristematic and Permanent tissue (cell-division):

Meristematic tissue

Permanent tissue

Cells can actively divide

Cells have lost their ability to divide

(c) Differences between Blood and Lymph (cellular components):



Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

White blood cells

(d) Differences between Bone and Cartilage (porosity):



Hard and porous

Elastic and non-porous

(e) Differences between Voluntary and Involuntary muscles (shape and cellular structure):

Voluntary muscles

Involuntary muscles

Cells are long, nucleated and striated

Cells are spindle-shaped, uninucleated and smooth.

Solution D.2

(a) Cell and Tissue



  • A cell is the structural and functional unit of all living beings.
  • E.g. epithelial cell
  • A tissue is a group of similar cells which perform a specific function.
  • E.g. nervous tissue

(b) Organ and Organism



  • Several tissues together contribute to specific functions inside the body and constitute an organ.
  • E.g. stomach
  • Several organ systems together constitute the organism.
  • E.g. human being

(c) Organ and Organelle



  • Several tissues together contribute to specific functions inside the body and constitute an organ.
  • E.g. stomach
  • Parts of the cell that have a definite function in the cell.
  • E.g. mitochondria

(d) Organ and Organ system


Organ system

  • Several tissues together contribute to specific functions inside the body and constitute an organ.
  • E.g. stomach
  • Many organs act together to perform a specific life process and constitute an organ system.
  • E.g. digestive system

Solution E.1

(a) The given diagram is of the phloem tissue because the cells show cellular contents unlike the xylem tissue which contains hollow cells without any cellular contents.  


1 Sieve cell

2 → Phloem parenchyma cell

3 → Companion cell

4 → Sieve plate

(c) The phloem is a food-conducting tissue and is likely to be found in the leaves and stem of plants to carry the food manufactured in the leaves to various parts of the plant.


1 → Sieve cells: Help in the transport of food from leaves to storage organs and other parts of the plant.

2 → Phloem parenchyma cells: Storage of starch, fat and other organic food material.

3 → Companion cells: Help in the functioning of the sieve tube cells.

4 → Sieve plate: Perforations in the sieve plates allow water and dissolved organic solutes to flow along the sieve tube. 

Solution E.2

(a) The given diagram shows a nerve cell or neuron.


1 → Dendrites/Dendrons

2 → Axon

3 → Nucleus

4 → Cyton/Perikaryon

5 → Neurolemma

6 → Axon endings

(c) The nerve cell is likely to be found in the nervous system of the human body. The function of the nerve cell is to transmit messages from one part of the body to another. It is associated with perception and responses of animals. 

Solution E.3

(a) A - Cartilage, B - Bone

(b) Figure A: (1) - Matrix, (2) - Cells

Figure B: (1) - Concentric lamellae, (2) - Haversian canal, (3) - Bone cell

(c) Both cartilage (A) and bones (B) are supportive connective tissues. They provide support and surfaces for muscle attachment.

(d) Difference between cartilage (A) and bone (B):



Allows smooth movement of the bones at the joints

Provides structural support to the body

(e) Cartilage (A) is found in the tip of the nose and bone (B) is present in the knee and the elbow.

Solution E.4

(a) Two kinds of fibrous connective tissue are tendons and ligaments.

(b) Tendons connects muscles to bones whereas ligaments connect bone to bone and hold them in position.

(c) Fibrous connective tissue


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