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Class 9 SELINA Solutions Biology Chapter 10 - Nutrition

Nutrition Exercise Ex. 1

Solution A.1(a)

(iii) Fructose and Glucose

Solution A.1(b)

(iv) Potassium - Banana

Solution A.1(c)

(ii) Carbohydrates, fats and proteins

Solution A.1(d)

(i) A, D and E 

Solution A.1(e)

(iii) Carrot 

Solution A.1(f)

(i) C 

Solution A.1(g)

(iii) Roughage

Solution A.1(h)

(iii) Glucose

Solution A.1(i)

(i) Maltose

Solution A.1(j)

(ii) Beri beri

Solution B.1

(a) T (True)

(b) F (False). Kwashiorkor is a severe protein deficiency disease.

(c) F (False). Iodine is required for the proper working of thyroid.

(d) F (False). Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system of the body, when it detects harmful substances called antigens.

(e) T (True)

Solution B.2

(a) Calcium

(b) Iodine

(c) Iron

(d) Phosphorous

(e) Calcium

Solution B.3

(i) Pernicious anaemia - Vitamin B12

(ii) Pellagra - Vitamin B3

(iii) Night blindness - Vitamin A

(iv) Goitre - Mineral iodine

(v) Kwashiorkor - Proteins

Solution B.4

(i) Marasmus (Rest are vitamin deficiency diseases)

(ii) Iodine (Rest are vitamins)

(iii) Lactose (Rest are monosaccharides or single sugars)

(iv) Fructose (Rest are polysaccharides)

(v) Iron (Rest are macronutrients)

Solution B.5


Solution B.6

(a) Night blindness and Xerophthalmia

(b) Rickets and Osteomalacia

(c) Pellagra and Dermatitis

(d) Goitre and cretinism

(e) Kwashiorkor and Marasmus

Solution B.7

(a) Haemorrhage

(b) Goitre

(c) Cretinism

(d) Night blindness

(e) Xerophthalmia

Solution B.8

(a) Glucose + Galactose  Lactose

(b) Glucose + Glucose  Maltose

(c) Glucose + Fructose  Sucrose

(d) (C6H10O5)n  Starch

(e) Amino acid1 + Amino acid2 + Amino acid3+Amino acid Proteins 

Solution C.1

(a) A diet which contains all the principal constituents of food like carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, fats, minerals, and water in proper quantity for a particular person is called a balanced diet.

(b) Malnutrition is a condition in which a person suffers due to lack or deficiency of one or more essential elements of food.

(c) Food is a substance which we eat or drink and which contains nutrients.

(d) Nutrients are the molecules in food that provide us with energy that helps us to heal and grow, as well as carry out many life functions.

(e) Kwashiorkor is a type of malnutrition characterized by severe protein deficiency usually affecting young children.

Solution C.2





(i) Monosaccharides




Provides an instant source of energy


Needed for maintaining a healthy body

(ii) Disaccharides




Needed for good health


Further broken down to produce glucose molecule which provides energy to the body

(iii) Polysaccharides



Acts as roughage which prevents constipation

2. Glycogen


Reserve carbohydrate in humans and stored in liver and muscles

Solution C.3

(a) Cellulose: It contributes in providing roughage for proper functioning of the gut.

(b) Fat: It produces energy in the body and acts as an important storage form of food. It serves as a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and protects the body against rapid loss of heat.

(c) Proteins: They provide chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues.

(d) Calcium: It helps in strengthening the bones and teeth. It is also required for muscle contraction and clotting of blood.

(e) Phosphorous: It provides chemical energy in the form of ATP during cellular respiration. It also helps in strengthening the bones and teeth.

Solution C.4

Bones are generally made of calcium and iron. Milk and milk products are rich in calcium and Vitamin A. That is why, a doctor advises a bone patient to include more of milk and milk products in his everyday food to make his bones and teeth strong. Milk also prevents oxidation of Vitamin A. Calcium present in milk even helps in clotting of blood. Milk, is therefore a wholesome food.

Solution D.1

(a) Differences between Monosaccharides and Disaccharides (Number of carbon atoms):



(b) Differences between Kwashiorkor and Marasmus (Age):



(c) Differences between Tocopherol and Pantothenic acid (Solubility):



(d) Differences between Malnutrition and Undernutrition (Definition):



(e) Differences between Iron and Iodine (Deficiency diseases):


Solution D.2

Need for food by the body:

(1) Growth: Food is necessary for building new protoplasm or cells. This helps in the growth of an organism.

(2) Repair: Food provides materials for the repair of worn out or damaged cells and tissues.

(3) Energy: We obtain energy from food. This energy is required for carrying out various life functions.

(4) Maintenance: Nutrients obtained through food help to maintain the chemical composition of cells.

(5) Provision of raw materials: Raw materials required for the synthesis of products such as enzymes, hormones, sweat, milk, etc. are obtained through food.

(6) Protection: Food provides protection from diseases and infection.

Solution D.3

Proteins are the body building foods. They provide the chemical material for the growth and repair of body cells and tissues. At the time of emergency, proteins can also be oxidized in the body to release energy.

Solution D.4

Whole grain atta, fruits and green leafy vegetables are the chief sources of roughage.

(1) Roughage does not provide any nutrients to our body. It still has nutritive value and is essential for the proper functioning of the gut.

(2) It absorbs a lot of water and retains it. In this way, it keeps faecal matter soft preventing constipation.

(3) It combines with intestinal waste and makes it bulky.

(4) It helps in the formation of stools and helps our body to expel the undigested waste food.

(5) Roughage expands the intestinal lumen and helps in slow and smooth movement of food through the gastrointestinal tract. This movement is required for proper and complete digestion of food and for the elimination of intestinal waste.

(6) Roughage stimulates secretion from the digestive tract and also helps in removal of cholesterol, fatty secretory substances and toxins from the body.

Solution D.5

Water is necessary in our body because of the following reasons:

(1) It is the most abundant component of blood, which transports nutrients and oxygen to and from all cells.

(2) It is used in the excretion of soluble wastes.

(3) It aids in the maintenance of body temperature.

(4) It is used to produce digestive juices.

Solution D.6

(The solution for the given question depends on your diet where you can write about your own balanced diet which you consume. A sample is being provided for reference)


 Breakfast recharges the body by providing energy. It provides proteins and other essential minerals to the body.

 Whole grains, cereals, milk, fruit juices, bread and eggs can be eaten for breakfast.


 Lunch should be eaten within a limit. Add vitamin rich foods in lunch.

 Soups, sandwiches, some amount of brown rice, veggie salads, leafy vegetables, egg, chicken, and fish can be eaten for lunch.


 Dinner should be eaten early and not too late in the night. Eat very less quantity of food for dinner so that you do not keep your stomach empty.

 Chapatti, veggie salads and green leafy vegetables can be eaten for dinner. 

Solution E.1




(i) Thiamine

Whole grain




(ii) Pellagra

(iii) Ascorbic acid

(iv) Citrus fruit



(v) Fish liver oil

(vi) Rickets

(vii) Retinol

Carrot, yellow fruit

(viii) Night blindness


Solution E.2



Rich Source


Promotes the secretion of thyroxine by the thyroid gland

Iodised salt, sea foods


Formation of haemoglobin

Whole cereals, fish


Allows muscle contraction and clotting of blood

Dairy foods, beans


Controls nerve and muscle activity, fluid balance, secretion of neurotransmitter

Banana, potato

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