SELINA Solutions for Class 9 Biology Chapter 8 - Five Kingdom Classification

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Chapter 8 - Five Kingdom Classification Exercise Ex. 1

Solution A

1. (d) vertebrates and invertebrates

2. (d) Bat, Parrot, Oyster - Vertebrates

3. (c) Rana tigrina

4. (d) Mule is neither a donkey nor a horse.

Solution B.1

Carolus Linnaeus had introduced the binomial system of naming living beings.

Solution B.2

The two characters common to dog, humans, squirrel, bat, camel and monkey are:

(c ) external ears

(d) give birth to young ones

Solution B.3

Column I

Column II

1.Pine

(iv) Gymnosperm

(v) Plantae

2. Earthworm

(vi) Animalia

3. Bread mould

(i) Fungi

4. Amoeba

(vii) Protista

5. Moss

(v) Plantae

(viii) Bryophyta

6.Bacteria

(ii) Monera

(iii) Prokaryote

 

Solution C.1

Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

Solution C.2

Man

Domestic cat

Peepal tree

Homo sapiens

Felis domesticus

Ficus religiosa 

Solution C.3

In science, people from different countries with different languages have to read about each others research. So, it was necessary to eliminate any possible confusion created by local names. Scientific names are based on certain rules which are universal. They are unique and can be used to identify an organism anywhere around the world. That is why, scientific names of living beings are considered better than their common names.

Solution C.4

According to the 'Two-Kingdom Classification', proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758, living organisms were classified into two broad kingdoms, Plants and Animals.

The drawbacks in classifying organisms under the old two kingdom classification are:

1. Bacteria were kept in Kingdom Plantae. These organisms have no chlorophyll and do not carry out photosynthesis. Bacteria do not have a definite nucleus nor a nuclear membrane nor chromosomes.

2. Fungi were kept in Kingdom Plantae. Bread mould is a multicellular fungi. However, it does not possess roots, stem and leaves, lacks chlorophyll and does bear any flowers, fruits and seeds like plants.

Solution C.5

Species means an organism of a particular kind whose members can interbreed among themselves to produce fertile young ones.

All humans on the earth today may differ widely in their facial features, colour, height, etc. Yet, they belong to a single species Homo sapiens because they can interbreed among themselves and produce a normal offpsring.

Solution C.6

Ficus religiosa (Peepal)

Zea mays (Maize)

Bombyx mori (Silkmoth)

Solution C.7

The five kingdoms according to the new classification are:

1. Kingdom Monera

2. Kingdom Protista

3. Kingdom Fungi

4. Kingdom Plantae

5. Kingdom Animalia

Solution C.8

(a) Animals with a backbone: Vertebrata

(b) Animals with a hairy skin: Mammalia

(c )Animals with three pairs of legs: Insecta

(d)Animals with feathers: Aves

Solution C.9

Invertebrate animals:

Housefly

Silverfish

Jellyfish

Sponge

Solution C.10

 

(a) Vertebrate and Invertebrate

 

Vertebrates

Invertebrates

Have their unique backbone with the spinal cord

 

Do not have a backbone

 

(b) Insecta and Arachnida

 

Insecta

Arachnida

Have three pairs of legs

Have four pairs of legs

 

(c) Flatworm and Roundworm

Flatworm

Roundworm

Dorso-ventrally flattened

Cylindrical in shape and are tapered at both ends

 

 

Solution C.11

(i) Amoeba - Nucleus, tentacle, food vacuole

(ii) Hydra - Invertebrata, Cnidaria, Crustacea

(iii) Fish - Gills, paired fins, ear drum

(iv) Earthworm - Invertebrata, Annelida, Insecta

(v) Grasshopper - Wings, trachea, proboscis

(vi) Butterfly - Insecta, Invertebrata, Mollusca

(vii) Whale - Gills, mammary glands, fat under the skin

(viii) Pigeon - Feathers, wings, hair

(ix) Monkey - External ear, sweat glands, lateral line

(x) Bat - Aves, Mammalia, Chordata

Solution C.12

Cold-blooded animals

Warm-blooded animals

These animals cannot maintain their body temperature. Their body temperature is regulated by the external environment. 

Animals whose body temperature is kept relatively constant by internal mechanisms. 

E.g. Insects, Amphibians

E.g. Birds, Mammals

Solution C.13

1. Class Amphibia: Tree frog

2. Class Reptilia: Cobra

3. Class Aves: Duck

Solution D.1

(a) Insects and Birds

Similarity

Difference

Have wings

Insects

Birds

Invertebrates 

Vertebrates

(b) Whales and Fishes

Similarity

Difference

Aquatic

Whales

Fishes

Have lungs for breathing

Have gills for breathing

(c) Snakes and Earthworms

Similarity

Difference

Do not have any limbs

Snakes

Earthworm

Vertebrates

Invertebrates

(d) Bat and Pigeon

Similarity

Difference

Breathe through lungs

Bat

Pigeon

Have external ears

Have internal ears

(e) Cuttlefish and Dogfish

Similarity

Difference

Marine animals

Cuttlefish

Dogfish

Invertebrates

Vertebrates

(f) Wall lizard and Frog

Similarity

Difference

Cold-blooded animals

Wall lizard

Frog

Completely adapted to life on land

Live partly on land and partly in water

Solution D.2

Column I

Column II

Annelida

Earthworm

Porifera

Sponge

Mollusca

Octopus

Reptilia

Snake

Pisces

Trout

Mammal

Rabbit

Amphibia from Column I and Pigeon from column II are left out. They do not match as Pigeon comes under Class Aves and not Class Amphibia.

Solution E.1

(a) Toadstool (mushroom).

(b) Kingdom Fungi.

(c) Characteristics of fungi that differentiate it from plants:

1. Fungi lack chlorophyll while plants possess chlorophyll.

2. Fungi are multinucleate while plants are uninucleate.

3. Fungi have a cell wall made of chitin while plants have a cell wall made of cellulose.

Solution E.2

The organism shown in a peacock.

(a) Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata (Vertebrata)

Class: Aves

(b) Significant characteristics of organisms belonging to class Aves:

1. They have exoskeleton made of feathers.

2. Their body is streamlined and the skeleton is light to facilitate flying.

3. They have scaly legs and four-chambered heart.

 (c) Key features phylum Chordata (Vertebrata):

1. They have a well-developed vertebral column.

2. They have a head, trunk and two pairs of appendages.

Vertebrates are divided into five classes:

1. Pisces

2. Amphibia

3. Reptilia 

4. Aves

5. Mammalia