Chapter 5 : Transpiration - Selina Solutions for Class 10 Biology ICSE

Biology is one of the crucial subjects in ICSE Class 10. ICSE Class 10 Biology speaks about the cell as the basic unit of life, genes, and evolution and deals with how living organisms interact with the environment, including the behavior of living beings. TopperLearning is one of the premier online platforms which helps students of ICSE Class 10 to study various concepts in Biology.

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Chapter 5 - Transpiration Excercise Ex. 1

Question 1

Transpiration pull will be maximum under which set of the following conditions?

(a) Open stomata, dry atmosphere and moist soil

(b) Open stomata, high humid atmosphere and well irrigated soil

(c) Open stomata, high humid atmosphere and dry soil

(d) Closed stomata, dry atmosphere and dry soil

Solution 1

(a) Open stomata, dry atmosphere and moist soil

Question 2

With decrease in atmospheric pressure, the rate of transpiration will

(a) increase

(b) decrease rapidly

(c) decrease slowly

(d) remain the same
Solution 2
(a) increase
Question 3

The rate of transpiration is more when

(a) atmosphere is dry

(b) temperature is high

(c) humidity is high

(d) atmosphere is dry and temperature is high
Solution 3
(b) temperature is high
Question 4

One of the internal factors which affect the rate of transpiration, is

(a) big size of the leaf

(b) Colour of the leaf

(c) sunken stomata

(d) sunny day
Solution 4
(c) sunken stomata
Question 5

Guttation takes place through

(a) stomata

(b) lenticels

(c) lower epidermis of leaves

(d) hydathodes
Solution 5
(d) hydathodes
Question 6

The loss of water as water vapour from the aerial parts of a plant is known as

(a)evaporation

(b) perspiration

(c) guttation

(d) transpiration
Solution 6
(d) transpiration
Question 7

Transpiration will be fastest when the day is

(a) cool, humid and windy

(b) hot, humid and still

(c) hot, humid and windy

(d) hot, dry and windy
Solution 7
(d) hot, dry and windy
Question 8

Most of the transpiration in tall trees occurs through

(a) Stomata

(b) Lenticels

(c) Cuticle

(d) Bark
Solution 8
(b) Lenticels
Question 9

Transpiration is best defined as

(a) loss of water by the plant

(b) evaporation of water from the aerial surfaces of a plant

(c) loss of water, as water vapour, by a plant

(d) release of water by a plant into the atmosphere

Solution 9

(b) evaporation of water from the aerial surfaces of a plant

Question 10
Name the following:

(a) Openings on the stem through which transpiration occurs

(b) The process by which the intact plant loses water in the form of droplets

(c) An instrument used to find the rate of transpiration

(d) A plant in which the stomata are sunken

(e) The apparatus to record the rate of transpiration in a cut shoot.

(f) Any two parts of a leaf which allow transpiration

(g) The structure in a leaf that allows guttation

(h) Loss of water as droplets from the margins of certain leaves.
Solution 10
(a) Lenticels

(b) Guttation

(c) Potometer

(d) Nerium

(e) Ganong's photometer

(f) Stomata and cuticle

(g) Hydathodes

(h) Guttation
Question 11

Fill in the blanks:

(a) Transpiration is the loss of water as water ............ from the ............ parts of the plant.

(b) Closing of ............ and shedding of leaves reduce .............

(c) Transpiration helps in creating ............. force and in eliminating excess .............

Solution 11

(a) vapour, aerial

(b) stomata, transpiration

(c) suction, water (heat)

Question 12

Given below is an example of a certain structure and its special functional activity:

chloroplasts and photosynthesis

In a similar way, write the functional activity against each of the following:

(a) Hydathodes and ....................................

(b) Leaf spines and ....................................

(c) Lenticels and ........................................

(d) Xylem and ...................................

Solution 12

(a) guttation

(b) protection and reduced transpiration

(c) transpiration

(d) conduction of water and mineral salts

Question 13

(a) State whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F)?

(i) Most transpiration occurs at midnight.

(ii) Transpiration creates a pull for the upward movement of the sap.

(iii) Wind velocity has an effect on transpiration.

(iv) Voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring the rate of transpiration in green plants.

(b) Rewrite the false statements in (a) above, in the correct form by changing either the first or the last word only.

Solution 13

(i) False. Most transpiration occurs at mid-day.

(ii) True

(iii) True

(iv) False. Potometer is an instrument used for measuring the rate of transpiration in green plants.

Question 14
Give suitable explanation for the following :

(a) A higher rate of transpiration is recorded on a windy day rather than on a calm day.

(b) Excessive transpiration results in the wilting of the leaves.

(c) Water transpired is the water absorbed.

(d) More transpiration occurs from the lower surface of a dorsiventral leaf.

(e) Cork and bark of trees help in preventing loss of water.

(f) Perspiration and transpiration help to cool the body temperature of the organism.

(g) On a bright sunny day, the leaves of certain plants roll up.
Solution 14
(a) Transpiration increases with the velocity of wind. If the wind blows faster, the water vapours released during transpiration are removed faster and the area surrounding the transpiring leaf does not get saturated with water vapour.

(b) When the rate of transpiration far exceeds the rate of absorption of water by roots, the cells lose their turgidity. Hence, excessive transpiration results in wilting of the leaves.

(c) Plants absorb water continuously through their roots, which is then conducted upwards to all the aerial parts of the plant, including the leaves. Only a small quantity of this water i.e. about 0.02% is used for the photosynthesis and other activities. The rest of the water is transpired as water vapour. Hence water transpired is the water absorbed.

(d) There are more stomatal openings on the lower surface of a dorsiventral leaf. More the number of stomata, higher is the rate of transpiration. Hence more transpiration occurs from the lower surface.

(e) Cork and Bark of trees are tissues of old woody stems. Bark is thick with outermost layer made of dead cells and the cork is hydrophobic in nature. These properties make them water-proof and hence they prevent transpiration.

(f) In both perspiration and transpiration, water is lost by evapouration from the body of the organism as water vapour. This evaporation reduces the temperature of the body surface and brings about cooling in the body of the organism.

(g) On a bright sunny day, the rate of transpiration is much higher than any other days. The leaves of certain plants roll up on a bright sunny day to reduce the exposed surface and thus reduce the rate of transpiration.
Question 15

Which of the following statements are true and which ones are false? Give reason in support of your answer.

(a) Potometer is an instrument used for demonstration of transpiration occurring from the lower surface of a leaf.

(b) Hydathodes are similar to stomata in plant physiology.

(c) Atmospheric humidity promotes transpiration from a green plant.

(d) Some desert plants have sunken stomata on their leaves.

(e) Most transpiration occurs during mid-day.

Solution 15

(a) False

Reason: Potometer is used to measure the rate of transpiration in a plant. Demonstration of transpiration occurring from the lower surface of a leaf is done by analyzing the changes in colour of pieces of dry cobalt chloride paper attached (and held in place) to the two surfaces of a leaf.

(b) False

Reason: Hydathodes are special pores present on the ends of leaf veins through which guttation occurs and water droplets are given out. Their openings cannot be regulated. Stomata on the other hand are minute openings in the epidermal layer of leaves through which exchange of gases as well as transpiration occurs. Water is given out as water vapour. Stomatal opening is regulated by guard cells.

(C) False

Reason: Transpiration is reduced during high atmospheric humidity. High humidity in the air reduces the rate of outward diffusion of the internal water vapour across stomata, thereby reducing the rate of transpiration.

(d) True

Reason: Desert plants need to reduce transpiration as much as possible so as to survive in the hot and dry environment. Hence some of them have sunken stomata as an adaptation to curtail transpiration.

(e) True

Reason: During the day, the stomata are open to facilitate the inward diffusion of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. During mid-day, the outside temperature is higher, due to which there is more evaporation of water from the leaves. Therefore more transpiration occurs during mid-day.

Question 16

Differentiate between guttation and bleeding in plants.

Solution 16

Guttation

Bleeding

It is the removal of excess of water from the plants because of excess water buildup in the plant.

It is the removal of water from the plant because of injury.

Water escapes from specialised structures called hydathodes.

Water escapes in the form of sap from the injured part of the plant.

 

Question 17
What is wilting? Some plants show wilting of their leaves at noon even when the soil is well watered. Why is it so?
Solution 17
Wilting refers to the loss of cellular turgidity in plants which results in the drooping of leaves or plant as a whole because of lack of water.

During noon the rate of transpiration exceeds the rate of absorption of water by roots. Due to the excessive transpiration, the cells of leaves lose their turgidity and wilt.
Question 18
Why are the stomata in most plants more numerous on the lower surface of a leaf instead of being on the upper surface?
Solution 18
The lower surface of leaf is sheltered from direct sunlight. If more stomata are on the upper surface of a leaf, then excessive transpiration would occur, resulting in quick wilting of the plant. Hence most plants have more numerous stomata on the lower surface of a leaf to control the rate of transpiration.
Question 19

Suppose you have a small rose plant growing in a pot. How would you demonstrate transpiration in it?

Solution 19
Take the small potted rose plant and cover it with a transparent polythene bag. Tie its mouth around the base of the stem. Leave the plant in sunlight for an hour or two.



Drops of water will soon appear on the inner side of the bag due to the saturation of water vapour given out by the leaves. A similar empty polythene bag with its mouth tied and kept in sunlight will show no drops of water. This is the control to show that plants transpire water in the form of water. If tested with dry cobalt chloride paper, the drops will be confirmed as water only.
Question 20
What is a potometer?
Solution 20


Potometer is a device that measures the rate of water intake by a plant. This water intake is almost equal to the water lost through transpiration. Potometers do not measure the water lost due to transpiration but measure the water uptake by the shoot.
Question 21
What is lenticular transpiration? Mention one major difference between lenticular transpiration and stomatal transpiration.
Solution 21
Transpiration occurring through lenticels i.e. minute openings on the surface of old stems is called lenticular transpiration.

Stomatal transpiration is controlled by the plant by altering the size of the stoma, where as this does not happen in case of lenticular transpiration. This is because the lenticels never close, but remain open all the time.

The amount of stomatal transpiration is much more than the amount of lenticular transpiration.
Question 22
List any three major factors that accelerate the rate of transpiration.
Solution 22
The factors that accelerate the rate of transpiration are:

(i) High intensity of sunlight

(ii) High temperature

(iii) Higher wind velocity

(iv) Decrease in atmospheric pressure

(Any three)
Question 23
There is a general belief that forests tend to bring more frequent rains. Can you explain this scientifically?
Solution 23
Forests have large number of plants especially trees. Each plant loses water in the form of water vapour everyday into the atmosphere through transpiration. A large apple tree loses as much as 30 litres of water per day. So huge amount of water is escaped into the atmosphere by forests. This increases the moisture in the atmosphere and brings more frequent rains.
Question 24
Droplets of water may sometimes be seen along the margins of the leaves of a banana plant, growing in wet soil in the mornings. Are these dew drops? Comment upon your answer.
Solution 24
No, they are not dew drops.

This is water given out by the plant body through guttation. Since the banana plant is growing in humid environment, transpiration is hampered. But the roots continue to absorb water from the soil. This builds up a huge hydrostatic pressure within the plant and forces out the excess water from the hydathodes, which are pores present at the tips of veins in the leaf. This is observed especially during the mornings.
Question 25

Briefly explain how the rate of transpiration is affected by:

(a) Intensity of light

(b) Humidity of the atmosphere

Solution 25

(a) Intensity of light - During the day, the stomata are open to facilitate the inward diffusion of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. At night they are closed. Hence more transpiration occurs during the day. During cloudy days, the stomata are partially closed and the transpiration is reduced.



(b) Humidity of the atmosphere - When the air is humid; it can receive very less water vapour. Thus, high humidity in the air reduces the rate of outward diffusion of the internal water vapour across stomata, thereby reducing the rate of transpiration.

Question 26
In an experiment, four freshly plucked leaves (A-D) of a plant, such as those of China Rose, was treated as follows:

(A) coated with vaseline on its upper surface

(B) coated on the lower surface

(C) coated on both surfaces

(D) left uncoated.

All the four leaves A, B, C and D were left in a room for about 24 hours.

(i) Which leaf would become most limp? Why?

(ii) Which leaf would show least limping? Why?

Solution 26
(i) The leaf D would become most limp. This is because water would be lost through transpiration from upper as well as the lower surface of leaf D since it is uncoated.

(ii) The least limping would be shown by leaf C since its upper and lower surfaces have been coated with vaseline. So no water is lost from the leaf through transpiration since the stomatal openings get blocked by vaseline.
Question 27

Given alongside is the diagram of an experimental set-up to demonstrate a certain phenomenon in plants.



(a) Name the phenomenon being demonstrated.

(b) What is the purpose of putting oil in the test tube?

(c)  What is the purpose of the spring balance in the set-up?

(d) Would it make a difference if the experimental set-up is kept in bright sunshine?

Solution 27

(a) Transpiration

(b) Oil is put on the surface of water to prevent loss of water by evaporation.

(c) Yes, the transpiration rate will increase. Transpiration would occur faster. The observable changes will occur in less time.

(d) The spring balance progressively measures the change in weight of the set-up. This because as the plant transpires, it creates the suction force in plant which allows roots to absorb more water from the test tube. Hence, the water in the test will get reduced. Thus, the weight of the entire set will decrease.

Question 28

Given below is the diagram of an apparatus used to study a particular phenomenon in plants:

(a) Name the apparatus.

(b) What is it used for?

(c) What is the role played by the air-bubble in this experiment?

(d) What is the use of the reservoir?

(e) What happens to the movement of the air-bubble if the apparatus is kept:

(i) In the dark

(ii) In sunlight

(iii) In front of a fan

Give a reason in each case.

Solution 28

(a) Ganong’s potometer

(b) Ganong’s potometer is used to measure the water intake of a plant which is almost equal to the water lost through transpiration.

(c) The movement of the air bubble and its position in the capillary tube indicates the volume of water lost through transpiration in a given time.

(d) The water in the reservoir can be released into the capillary tube by opening the stop cock. This allows the air bubble to restore back to its original position.

(e)

(i) If the apparatus is kept in the dark, there will be no transpiration as the stomata would be closed. As a result, there would be no movement of the air bubble and it would remain stable.

(ii) If the apparatus is kept in bright sunlight, the rate of transpiration will be more. As a result, the movement of the air bubble would be larger since there would be more loss of water due to transpiration. 

(iii) If the apparatus is kept in front of a fan, the rate of transpiration will be more. As a result, the movement of the air bubble would be larger since there would be more loss of water due to transpiration as the velocity of wind/air increases. 

Question 29

Given ahead is the diagram of an experimental set up to study the process of transpiration in plants. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the colour of dry cobalt chloride paper.

(b) Is the experimental leaf a monocot or a dicot? Give a reason to support your answer.

(c) Why are glass slides placed over the dry cobalt chloride papers?

(d) After about half an hour what change, if any, would you expect to find in the cobalt chloride paper placed on the dorsal and ventral sides of the leaf? Give a reason to support your answer.

Solution 29

(a) Blue.

(b) The experimental leaf is a dicot leaf as it shows reticulate venation and there are more number of stomatal openings on the undersurface of a dicot leaf. Hence, transpiration is more and can be easily observed.

(c) Glass slides are placed over the dry cobalt chloride papers so as to retain the strips in their position.

(d) The cobalt chloride paper on the dorsal side will turn less pink or turns pink in a much longer time; while the one on the ventral side will turn more pink. This occurs because the ventral surface has more number of stomata as compared to the dorsal surface. As a result, the rate of transpiration is more on the ventral side than on the dorsal side of a dicot leaf. 

Question 30

The apparatus shown in the following diagram is Garreau’s potometer designed to demonstrate unequal transpiration from the two surfaces of a dorsiventral leaf. Before keeping the leaf in between the cups, anhydrous calcium chloride (CaCl2) contained in two small vials were weighed and placed in both the cups. The ends of the cups were closed with corks through which two mercury manometers were connected. After few hours, CaCl2  vials were taken out and weighed again.

(a) What is the purpose of keeping CaCl2 vials inside the cup?

(b) After few hours CaCl2 vials were taken out and weighed again. Will you expect any difference in weight? If so, give reason.

(c) What is the purpose of using a manometer?

(d) What do you mean by transpiration?

Solution 30

(a) CaCl2 is a hygroscopic compound that absorbs moisture/water without changing its state. CaClvials inside the cup to absorb water.

(b) Yes, after few hours the weight of the CaCl2 vials will increase because they will absorb water lost by the leaf of the plant due to transpiration.

(c) Manometer is used to measure the pressure. In order to measure the pressure exerted by the fluid, the fluid is allowed to exert pressure on one of the closed ends of the tube. Under the effect of the pressure, the liquid inside the manometer tube gets displaced and the amount of displaced liquid is measured.

(d) Transpiration is the loss of water in the form of water vapour from the aerial parts (leaves and stem) of the plant.

Question 31

The figure given below represents an experimental setup with a weighing machine to demonstrate a particular process in plants. The experimental setup was placed in bright sunlight. Study the diagram and answer the following questions.

  

 

(a) Name the process intended for study. 

(b) Define the above mentioned process. 

(c) When the weight of the test tubes A and B is taken before and after the experiment, what change is observed? Justify. 

(d) What is the purpose of keeping the test tube B in the experimental setup? 

Solution 31

(a) Transpiration

(b) Transpiration is a process by which water is lost in the form of water vapour from aerial parts of the plant. 

(c) Weight of test tube A before the experiment was more than its weight after the experiment. This is because water from test tube A has evaporated due to transpiration.

Weight of test tube B remains the same before and after the experiment, because no loss of water occurs in test tube B.

(d) Test tube B is used here as a control. This makes the observation of the change in test tube A easy.

Question 32

An apparatus as shown below was set up to investigate a physiological process in plants. The setup was kept in sunlight for two hours. Droplets of water were then seen inside the bell jar. Answer the questions that follow:

  

 

(a) Name the process being studied.

(b) Explain the process named above in (a).

(c) Why was the pot covered with a plastic sheet?

(d) Suggest a suitable control for this experiment.

(e) Mention two ways in which this process is beneficial to plants.

(f) List three adaptations in plants to reduce the above mentioned process.

Solution 32

(a) Transpiration

(b) Transpiration is a process during which water is lost in the form of water vapour through aerial parts of the plant. 

(c) The pot is covered with a plastic sheet to prevent evaporation of water from the soil.

(d) A control for this experiment will be an empty polythene bag with its mouth tied.

(e) Transpiration is beneficial to plants in the following ways:

  • It creates a suction force in the stem which enables the roots to absorb water and minerals.
  • It helps in cooling the plant in hot weather.

 

(f) Adaptations in plants to reduce transpiration are 

  • Leaves may be modified into spines as in cactus or into needles as in pines.
  • The number of stomata is reduced and they may be sunken in pits.
  • Leaves may be folded or rolled up.
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