Chapter 8 : The Circulatory System - Selina Solutions for Class 10 Biology ICSE

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Chapter 8 - The Circulatory System Excercise Ex. 1

Question 1
Agranulocytes are:

(a) lymphocytes and monocytes

(b) lymphocytes and basophils

(c) eosinophils and basophils

(d) eosinophils and monocytes
Solution 1
(a) lymphocytes and monocytes
Question 2
White blood cells engulf bacteria in a process called:

(a) diapedesis

(b) phagocytosis

(c) active transport

(d) passive transport
Solution 2
(b) phagocytosis
Question 3
The nearest organ to which the heart supplies oxygenated blood is

(a) Lung

(b) Stomach

(c) Intestine

(d) Heart itself
Solution 3
(d) Heart itself
Question 4
When a doctor is recording your pulse, he is pressing on your wrist exactly on a

(a) vein

(b) capillary

(c) artery

(d) arteriole
Solution 4
(c) artery
Question 5
The blood vessels supplying blood to the kidney is the

(a) renal vein

(b) renal artery

(c) dorsal aorta

(d) hepatic vein
Solution 5
(b) renal artery
Question 6

Angina Pectoris is due to

(a) defective nutrition

(b) chest pain due to inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle

(c) defective functioning of mitral valve

(d) infection by a virus

Solution 6

(b) chest pain due to inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle

Question 7
The chief function of lymph nodes is to

(a) produce WBCs

(b) produce hormones

(c) destroy old RBCs

(d) destroy pathogens
Solution 7
(d) destroy pathogens
Question 8

Heart sounds are produced due to

(a) closure of tricuspid and bicuspid valves

(b) rushing of blood through valves producing turbulence

(c) closure of atrioventricular and semilunar valves

(d) entry of blood into auricles

Solution 8

(a) closure of tricuspid and bicuspid valves

(b) rushing of blood through valves producing turbulence

(c) closure of atrioventricular and semilunar valves

Question 9

Given below are certain structures, write their chief functional activity.

(a) Blood platelets ------

(b) Neutrophils -----

(c) Erythrocytes -----

(d) Lymphocytes -----

(e) Bone marrow -----

Solution 9

(a) Blood platelets and blood coagulation

(b) Neutrophils and phagocytosis

(c) Erythrocytes and transportation of gases

(d) Lymphocytes and Produce antibodies

(e) Bone marrow and destruction of old and weak RBC's/production of RBCs and WBCs.

Question 10
Name the following:

(a) The cells which transport oxygen to the different parts of the human body.

(b) The cells that initiate blood clotting.
Solution 10
(a) Red Blood Cells

(b) Blood Platelets
Question 11
Name the following:

(a) Any one vein which starts from an organ and ends in another organ besides the heart.

(b) The kind of blood vessels which have no muscular walls.

(c) Any artery which carries impure (deoxygenated) blood.

(d) The kind of blood cells which can squeeze out through the walls of one category of blood vessels.

(e) The smallest common blood vessels formed by the union of capillaries.

(f) The category of blood vessels which start from capillaries and end in capillaries.

(g) The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the auricles contract.

(h) The valve present in between the chambers on the right side of the human heart.

(i) The phase of the cardiac cycle in which the ventricles get filled with blood from the atrium.

(j) The fluid found between the membranes of the heart.
Solution 11
(a) Hepatic portal vein

(b) Blood Capillaries

(c) Pulmonary artery

(d) White blood cells

(e) Venules

(f) Portal vein

(g) Atrial systole

(h) Tricuspid valve

(i) Atrial systole

(j) Pericardial fluid
Question 12

Complete the following statements by filling in the blanks from the choices given in the brackets.

(a) The blood vessel that begins and ends in capillaries is the ______. (hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein)

(b) A blood vessel which has small lumen and thick wall is _______. (capillary, lymphatic duct, artery, venule)

(c) The valve which prevents the back flow of blood in the veins and lymph vessels ______.(mitral valve, tricuspid valve, semilunar valve)

(d) An anticoagulant present in the blood is _______.(heparin, hirudin, thromboplastin, calcium)

Solution 12

(a) The blood vessel that begins and ends in capillaries is the hepatic portal vein.

(b) A blood vessel which has small lumen and thick wall is artery.

(c) The valve which prevents the back flow of blood in the veins and lymph vessels is semilunar valve.

(d) An anticoagulant present in the blood is heparin.

Question 13
Note the relationship between the first two words and suggest the suitable word/words for the fourth place:

(a) Lubb: Atrio-ventricular valve:: Dup:_______

(b) Coronary artery: Heart::Hepatic artery:______
Solution 13
(a) Lubb: Atrio-ventricular valve:: Dup: Semilunar valves

(b) Coronary artery: Heart::Hepatic artery: Liver
Question 14

Given reason, why a matured mammalian erythrocyte lacks nucleus and mitochondria?

Solution 14

A matured mammalian erythrocyte lacks a nucleus and mitochondria. The lack of a nucleus increases the surface area-volume ratio of RBCs, thus increasing the area for oxygen absorption. Also, the lack of a nucleus reduces the size of the cell, making it easy to flow through the blood vessels and more cells can be accommodated in a small area.

The lack of mitochondria implies that the cell does not use any oxygen absorbed for respiration, thus increasing the efficiency of the cell to transport oxygen as all the oxygen absorbed is transported without any loss.

Question 15
Enumerate the structural differences between white blood cells and red blood cells.
Solution 15
Structural Differences between White Blood Cells and Red Blood Cells:

White Blood Cells Red Blood Cells
1. White blood cells are amoeboid. Red blood cells are minute biconcave disc-like structures.
2. They are nucleated cells. They anucleated cells.
3. Haemoglobin is absent in red blood cells. Haemoglobin is present in red blood cells.
Question 16
Why is it necessary to know the blood groups before giving transfusion?
Solution 16
During blood transfusion it is necessary to know the blood groups before transfusion because it is important that the blood groups of the donor and the recipient are compatible. In case of an incompatible blood transfusion, the recipient develops antibodies that attack the antigens present on the RBCs of the donor causing the blood cells to clump together which may result in death.
Question 17

Differentiate between members of each of the following pairs with reference to phrases in brackets:

(a) Antibodies and Antibiotics (Source)

(b) RBC and WBC (Structure)

(c) Serum and Vaccine (Composition)

(d) Erythrocytes and leucocytes (function)

(e) Artery and vein (direction of blood flow)

(f) Artery and vein (type of blood primarily flowing through)

(g) Tricuspid and bicuspid valves (location)

Solution 17

(a) Differences between antibodies and antibiotics based on their source:

Antibodies

Antibiotics

They are produced by lymphocytes in response to the entry of pathogens in the bloodstream. 

They are the medicines extracted from some bacteria and fungi. Antibiotics destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogens.

(b) Differences between RBC and WBC based on their structure:

RBC

WBC

It is enucleated, biconcave, disc-like structure, flat in the centre while thick and rounded at the periphery.  

It is nucleated and amoeboid in shape.

(c) Differences between serum and vaccine based on their composition:

Serum

Vaccine

The plasma from which the protein fibrinogen has been removed is called serum. 

Vaccine is killed or living weakened germs which are introduced in the body to stimulate the production of antibodies against pathogens for a particular disease.

(d) Differences between erythrocytes and leucocytes based on their function:

Erythrocytes  

Leucocytes

They function in the transport of oxygen throughout the body and in the removal of carbon dioxide from the body.

They help in the defense of the body against disease-causing pathogens.

(e) Differences between artery and vein based on the direction of blood flow:

Artery  

Vein

It carries blood away from the heart.

It brings blood towards the heart.

(f) Differences between artery and vein based on the type of blood primarily flowing through them:

Artery  

Vein

It generally contains oxygenated blood.

It generally carries deoxygenated blood.

(g) Differences between tricuspid valve and bicuspid valve based on their location:

Tricuspid valve  

Bicuspid valve  

It is located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.

It is located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.

 

Question 18
What does the term double circulation mean?
Solution 18
Blood flows twice in the heart before it completes one full round. The full round thus includes pulmonary and systemic circulation. In pulmonary circulation, blood enters the lungs through pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary veins collect the blood from the lungs and carry it back to the left atrium.

In systemic circulation, blood from the left ventricle enters the aorta through which the blood is sent to the body parts. From the body parts blood is collected by veins and sent back to the heart. Therefore, the blood circulation in the human body is called double circulation.
Question 19
When are the sounds "LUBB" and "DUP" produced respectively during heart beat?
Solution 19
The first sound LUBB is produced when the atrio-ventricular valves i.e. tricuspid and bicuspid valves close at the start of ventricular systole.

The second sound DUP is produced at the beginning of ventricular diastole, when the pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves close.
Question 20
Why do people have a common belief that the heart is located on the left side of the chest?
Solution 20
People have a common belief that the heart is located on the left side of the chest because the narrow end of the roughly triangular heart is pointed to the left side and during its working the contraction of the heart is more powerful on the left side which can be felt.
Question 21

Match the items in column A with those in column B. Rewrite the correct matching pair.

 

Column A

Column B

(a) SA node

Plasma

(b) Defective haemoglobin in RBC

Serum

(c) Muscle fibres located in the heart

Pacemaker

(d) The liquid squeezed out of blood during clotting

Sickle cell anemia

(e) Never tires, keep on contracting and relaxing

Purkinje fibres

(f) Cardiac cycle

Cardiac muscles

(g) Liquid part of the blood without corpuscles

0.85 sec

 

Solution 21

Column A

Column B

(a) SA node

Pacemaker

(b) Defective hemoglobin in RBC

Sickle cell anemia

(c) Muscle fibres located in the heart

Purkinje fibres

(d) The liquid squeezed out of blood during clotting

Serum

(e) Never tires, keep on contracting and relaxing

Cardiac muscles

(f) Cardiac cycle

0.85 sec

(g) Liquid part of the blood without corpuscles

Plasma

 

Question 22

The table below is designed to indicate the transport of certain substances in our body. Fill in the blanks with suitable answers.

 

Substance

From

To

1. -----

Lungs

Whole body

2. Carbon dioxide

-----

-----

3. Urea

-----

-----

4. Digested carbohydrates

Intestines

-----

5. -----

-----

Target organs

 

Solution 22

Substance

From

To

1. Oxygen

Lungs

Whole body

2. Carbon dioxide

Whole body

Lungs

3. Urea

Whole body

Kidneys

4. Digested carbohydrates

Intestine

Whole body

5. Hormones

Endocrine glands

Target organs

 

Question 23
What are the functions of blood plasma?
Solution 23
The functions of blood plasma are:

(a) Transports of digested food from the alimentary canal to tissues.

(b) Transports excretory materials from tissues to excretory organs.

(c) Distributes hormones from the glands to their target site.

(d) Distributes heat in the body to maintain the body temperature.
Question 24

What are the main steps in coagulation of blood in their correct sequence?

Solution 24

Blood clotting or coagulation occurs in a series of the following steps:

(a) The injured tissue cells and the platelets disintegrate at the site of wound to release thromboplastin.

(b) The thromboplastin with the help of calcium ions converts inactive prothrombin into active thrombin.

(c) Thrombin in the presence of calcium ions converts soluble fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin which forms a mesh or network at the site of wound.

(d) The blood cells trapped in this network shrink and squeeze out the plasma to leave behind a solid mass known as the clot.

Question 25
What are the following?

(a) Rh factor

(b) Universal donor

(c) Diapedesis
Solution 25
(a) Rh factor - It is an inherited antigen often found on the blood cells. Some individuals have these antigens and are thus Rh positive (Rh+) while others who do not have this antigen are Rh negative (Rh-).

(b) Universal donor - The person with blood group O is a universal donor as this type of blood can be given to persons with any blood group i.e. O, A, B, AB.

(c) Diapedesis - It is the squeezing of leucocytes through the wall of capillaries into the tissues.
Question 26
Is it possible for the blood to clot under the skin? Give reason in support of your answer.
Solution 26
Blood clotting is not dependent on the exposure of blood to air. In fact, clotting can be caused by the movement of blood over a rough surface such as on cholesterol deposit inside of a blood vessel of the skin.
Question 27
State any five functions of the blood.
Solution 27
The functions of the blood are:

(a) Transport of digested food from the alimentary canal to tissues. These substances are simple sugars like glucose, amino acids, vitamins, mineral salts, etc.

(b) Transport of oxygen in the form of an unstable compound 'oxyhaemoglobin' from the lungs to the tissues.

(c) Transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

(d) Transport of excretory materials from the tissues to the liver, kidney or the skin for elimination.

(e) Distribution of hormones from glands to the target sites.

(f) Distribution of heat to keep the body temperature uniform.

(Any five)
Question 28

Explain the following terms:

(a) Endothelium

(b) Lymph nodes

(c) Venule

(d) Diastole

Solution 28

(a) Endothelium- It is the innermost layer of the muscular wall of an artery or a vein which faces the lumen.

(b) Lymph nodes- The structures from which fresh lymph channels arise which pour the lymph into major anterior veins.

(c) Venule- The smallest common blood vessel formed by the union of capillaries.

(d) Diastole- The relaxation of muscles of ventricles or atria.

Question 29

Give the structural differences between an artery and a vein.

Solution 29
Artery Vein
An artery is a vessel which carries blood away from the heart towards any organ. A vein is a vessel which conveys the blood away from an organ towards the heart.
Artery has thick muscular walls. Vein has thin muscular walls.
It has a narrow lumen. It has a broad lumen.
There are no valves. Thin pocket-shaped valves are present in the veins.
Arteries progressively decrease in size and branch to form arterioles. Arterioles further breaks up to form capillaries. Capillaries unite to form branches called Venules. Venules further unite to form veins.



Question 30
What are the functions of tonsils and spleen?
Solution 30
Tonsils: Tonsils are lymph glands located on the sides of the neck. They tend to localize the infection and prevent it from spreading it in the body as a whole.

Spleen: The spleen is a large lymphatic organ. The spleen acts as a blood reservoir in case of emergency such as haemorrhage, stress or poisoning. It produces lymphocytes and destroys worn out RBCs.
Question 31
How do you account for the following differences?

(a) The left ventricle has thicker walls than the right ventricle.

(b) The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than those of the right auricle.
Solution 31
(a) The left ventricle pumps blood to the farthest points in the body such as the feet, the toes and the brain against the gravity while the right ventricle pumps the blood only up to the lungs. Therefore, the left ventricle has thicker walls than the right ventricle.

(b) The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation whereas the right auricle receives the blood from vena cavae and passes it to the right ventricle. Therefore, walls of the right ventricle are thicker than those of the right auricle.
Question 32
Give reason for the following:

(a) The walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the walls of all the chambers.

(b) Blood flowing away from the stomach and intestines is put into circulation via the liver and not directly.

(c) The blood groups of both the donor and recipient must be known before transfusing blood.

(d) Only the veins and not the arteries are provided with valves.

(e) Atrial wall is less muscular than the ventricular wall.

(f) The arteries are deep seated in the body.
Solution 32
(a) The left ventricle pumps blood to the farthest points in the body such as the feet, the toes and the brain against the gravity. Thus, it requires greater force to push the blood. In order to with stand with the force applied the walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the walls of all the chambers.

(b) The blood from stomach and intestines enters the liver via hepatic portal vein because the liver monitors all the substances that have to be circulated in body. The excess nutrients such as glucose, fats are stores in the liver. Excess amino acids are broken down by the process deamination. Toxic substances are detoxified.

(c) During blood transfusion it is important that the blood groups of the donor and the recipient are compatible. In case of an incompatible blood transfusion, the recipient develops antibodies that attack the antigens present on the RBCs of the donor causing the blood cells to clump together which may result in death. The examination of Rh factor is also necessary for the blood transfusion. Therefore, the blood groups of both the donor and recipient must be known before transfusing blood.

(d) Veins carry the blood from the body part towards the heart while the arteries carry the blood from the heart. Veins carry the blood against the force of gravity. Therefore, only the veins and not the arteries are provided with valves.

(e) Atrial wall is less muscular than the ventricular wall because the major function of atria is to receive blood from the body and pump in into very next ventricles. While the ventricles pump the blood out of the heart. Right ventricle to the lungs and the left ventricle to all the body parts.

(f) Arteries are responsible to carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues. The blood flows in the artery under high pressure and in spurts. If arteries are located superficially then there is a high possibility of their damage which could lead to a lot of blood loss. To prevent this damage and blood loss, the arteries are deep seated in the body.
Question 33

What is meant by the term 'double circulation' of blood in mammals? What is diastole?

Solution 33

Blood flows twice in the heart before it completes one full cycle. This process of blood circulation in the human body is called double circulation.

 

The expansion or relaxation phase of the atria is called a diastole.

Question 34

Given below is a diagram of a smear of human blood. Study the same and answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the parts 1, 2, 3 and 4 indicated by guidelines.

(b) Mention two structural differences between the parts labeled 1 and 2.

(c) What is the main function of the parts labeled 1, 2 and 3 respectively?

(d) What is the life span of the part labeled "1"?

(e) Name a soluble protein found in "4" which helps in clotting of blood.

Solution 34

(a) 1 → Red Blood Cell (RBC),

2 → White Blood Cell (WBC),

3 → Blood Platelet

4 → Blood Plasma.

(b) The red blood cells are minute biconcave disc-like structures whereas the white blood cells are amoeboid.

(c) Function of part 1 (RBC): Transport of respiratory gases to the tissues and from the tissues, transport of nutrients from the alimentary canal to the tissues.

Function of part 2 (WBC): WBCs play major role in defense mechanism and immunity of the body.

Function of part 3 (Blood Platelet): Blood platelets are the initiator of blood clotting.

(d) The average life span of a red blood cell (RBC) is about 120 days.

(e) Thromboplastin

Question 35

Given below is a highly schematic diagram of the human blood circulatory system.

(a) Which part (state the number) represents the heart? Give reason in support of your answer.

(b) Which numbers represent the following respectively?

Aorta

Hepatic portal vein

Pulmonary artery

Superior vena cava

Renal vein

Stomach


Solution 35

(a) The structure 3 represents the heart. It forms the centre of double circulation and is located between the liver and the head (as per the diagram). Also the blood circulation (indicated by 1) begins from heart to lungs.

(b)

Aorta 5
Hepatic portal vein 7
Pulmonary artery 1
Superior vena cava 9
Renal vein 8
Stomach 10
Question 36
The diagram below shows part of the capillary bed in an organ of the human body. Some of the blood arriving at the capillaries at points labeled A, moves out into the spaces between the tissue cells. Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow:



(a) When the liquid from the blood surrounds the cells, what is it called?

(b) Name any one important component of the blood which remains inside the capillaries and fails to move out into the spaces.

(c) Some of the liquid surrounding the cells does not pass directly back into the blood but eventually reaches it by another route through vessel X. name the fluid present in vessel X.

(d) State two important functions performed in our body by the fluid present in vessel X.
Solution 36
(a) Tissue Fluid

(b) Red blood cells

(c) Lymph

(d) The lymph supplies nutrition and oxygen to those parts where blood cannot reach. The lymph drains away excess tissue fluids and metabolites and returns proteins to the blood from tissue spaces.
Question 37
The following simplified diagram refers to the outline plan of the circulation of blood in a mammal. Study the diagram and write the number and name of the blood vessel in each case as mentioned ahead.



(a) Several hours after a meal containing a lot of protein, which vessel will contain the highest concentration of urea?

(b) Which vessel would contain the highest concentration of amino acids and glucose soon after a meal?
Solution 37
(a) Hepatic portal vein (4)

(b) Hepatic portal vein (4)
Question 38

The figures given below show diagrammatic cross-sections of three kinds of blood vessels.



(a) Identify the blood vessels A, B and C.

(b) Name the parts labeled 1-4.

(c) Mention two structural differences between A and B.

(d) Name the kinds of blood that flow through A and through B respectively.

(e) In which one of the above vessels referred to in (a) above does the exchanges of gases actually take place?

Solution 38

(a) A- Artery, B-Vein, C-Capillary

(b) 1 - External layer made of connective tissue

2 - Lumen

3 - Middle layer of smooth muscles and elastic fibres

4 - Endothelium

(c) An artery has thick muscular walls and a narrow lumen. It does not have any valve. A vein on the other hand has thin muscular walls and a wider lumen. It has valves to prevent backflow of blood.

(d) A (Artery)- Oxygenated blood, B (Vein)- Deoxygenated blood

(e) At the capillary level the actual exchange of gases takes place.

Question 39

The diagram given below represents the human heart in one phase of its activity. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:

(a) Name the phase

(b) Which part of the heart is contracting in this phase? Give a reason to support your answer.

(c) Name the parts numbered 1 to 6.

(d) What type of blood flows through the parts marked '1' and '2'?

(e) How many valves are closed in this phase?



Solution 39

(a) Atrial Diastole and Ventricular Systole

(b) Ventricular muscles are contracting during this phase because the valves between the two ventricles and pulmonary artery and aorta are open while the atrio-ventricular valves are closed.

(c)

 

1

Pulmonary Artery

2

Aorta

3

Pulmonary Vein

4

Left Atrium

5

Bicuspid Valve

6

Right Ventricle



(d) Part 1 (Pulmonary artery) → Deoxygenated blood

Part 2 (Aorta) → Oxygenated Blood

(e) Two i.e., bicuspid and tricuspid valves are closed in this phase.
Question 40

Study the following diagram carefully and then answer the questions that follow:

  

a. Name the cell labelled 1.

b. Identify the phenomenon occurring in A.

c. Mention two structural differences between 1 and 2.

d. Name the process occurring in B and C and state the importance of this process in the human body.

Solution 40

a.  1 - Red blood cell

b. Diapedesis

c.  

RBC 

WBC

They lack a nucleus.

They have a nucleus.

They are biconcave and disc-shaped.

They are spherical and have different sizes.

 

d. The process which occurs in B and C is phagocytosis. In this process, the WBCs engulf the foreign particles and destroy them, thus preventing the occurrence of disease.

Question 41

Given below is a diagrammatic representation of certain types of blood vessels in human body.

  

a. Identify the types of blood vessels numbered 1 to 5.

b. Where can such an arrangement be found as an example - in lungs or in heart walls?

Solution 41

a.  

1 - Arteriole

2 - Artery

3 - Venule

4 - Capillaries

5 - Vein

 

b. Such an arrangement can be observed in the lungs.

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