Chapter 2 : Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division - Selina Solutions for Class 10 Biology ICSE

Biology is one of the crucial subjects in ICSE Class 10. ICSE Class 10 Biology speaks about the cell as the basic unit of life, genes, and evolution and deals with how living organisms interact with the environment, including the behavior of living beings. TopperLearning is one of the premier online platforms which helps students of ICSE Class 10 to study various concepts in Biology.

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Chapter 2 - Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division Excercise Ex. 1

Question 1

The chromatin material is formed of

(a) DNA only

(b) DNA and Histones

(c) Histones only

(d) Nucleotides

Solution 1

(b) DNA and Histones

Question 2

The term “chromosomes” literally means

(a) Inherited bodies

(b) Twisted threads

(c) Coloured bodies

(d) Shining threads

Solution 2

(c) Coloured bodies

Question 3

The number of chromosomes in a certain type of cell division is halved. This kind of cell division occurs in

(a) only testis

(b) only ovary

(c) both ovary and testis

(d) all body cells

Solution 3

(c) both ovary and testis

Question 4

In which one of the following options the two stages of mitosis have been given in correct sequence?

(a) Prophase, metaphase, telophase, anaphase

(b) Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

(c) Anaphase, telophase,  prophase, metaphase

(d) Telophase, anaphase, prophase, metaphase

Solution 4

(c) Anaphase, telophase,  prophase, metaphase

Question 5

Synthesis phase in the cell cycle is called so for the synthesis of more of

(a) RNA

(b) RNA and proteins

(c) DNA

(d) Glucose

Solution 5

(c) DNA

Question 6

Name the following:

(a) The repeating components of each DNA strand lengthwise.

(b) The complex structure consisting of DNA strand and a core of histones.

(c) The type of bond which joins the complementary nitrogenous bases.

(d) The three components of nucleotide.

Solution 6

(a) - Nucleotides.

(b) - Nucleosome.

(c) - Hydrogen Bond.

(d) - Phosphate, Sugar and Nitrogenous base.

Question 7

Imagine one cell (A) has undergone one mitotic division and another cell (B) has completed its meiotic division. How many cells would the two produce?

Cell A: ............................

Cell B:.............................

Solution 7

Cell A: 2

Cell B: 4

Question 8

Column 'A'

Column 'B'

(a) Chromosomes become arranged in a horizontal plane at the equator.

(b) Daughter chromosomes move to the opposite poles of a spindle

(c) Chromosomes become visible as fine long threads.

(d) Chromosomes lose their distinctiveness and gradually become transformed into a chromatin network

Anaphase

 

 

Prophase

 

 

Telophase

 

Metaphase

Solution 8

(a) - Metaphase.

(b) - Telophase.

(c) - Prophase.

(d) - Anaphase.

Question 9

Fill in the blanks.

(a) DNA replicates in the ............. of the cell cycle.  

(b) Mitosis occurs in our ............. cells.

(c) Mitosis produces two daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces ............ daughter cells.

(d) Meiosis occurs only in ............. cells.

(e) Modern humans have 46 chromosomes. Their sperms and eggs will have .......... chromosomes each.

(f) During the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the ............ chromosomes come to lie side by side.

Solution 9

(a) DNA replicates in the synthesis (S) phase of the cell cycle.  

(b) Mitosis occurs in our somatic (body) cells.

(c) Mitosis produces two daughter cells, whereas meiosis produces four daughter cells.

(d) Meiosis occurs only in reproductive cells.

(e) Modern humans have 46 chromosomes. Their sperms and eggs will have 23 chromosomes each.

(f) During the pairing of chromosomes in meiosis, the homologous chromosomes come to lie side by side.

Question 10

What is the difference between chromatin fibre and chromosome?

Solution 10

Chromatin fibre is unfolded, uncondensed, extended DNA. It is only visible when cell under goes division whereas chromosomes are condensed DNA and they are visible when the cell is divided.

Question 11

What are the rungs of the "DNA ladder" made of?

Solution 11

Rungs of DNA ladder is made of nitrogenous bases which includes Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).

Question 12

Correct the following statements if there is any mistake.

(a) The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA are Guanine, Thiamine, Adrenaline and Cytosine.

(b) Genes are specific sequences of bases on a chromosome.

(c) A nucleotide is composed of a sulphate, a sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.

(d) Nucleosomes are groups of cysteine molecules surrounded by DNA strands.

(e) If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 23 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus during interphase.

Solution 12

(a) The four nitrogenous bases in the DNA ladder are Guanine, Thymine, Adenine and Cytosine.

(b) Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides on a chromosome.

(c) A nucleotide is composed of a phosphate, sugar (pentose) and a nitrogenous base.

(d) Nucleosomes are groups of histone molecules surrounded by DNA strands.

(e) If there are 46 chromosomes in a cell there will be 46 chromatin fibres inside the nucleus during interphase.

Question 13

State the difference between:

(a) Chromosome and chromatid,

(b) Centrosome and centomere,

(c) Aster and spindle fibres

(d) Haploid and diploid

Solution 13

(a) A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences whereas a chromatid is one of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division (mitosis or meiosis).

(b) The centrosome is an area in the cell where microtubules are produced. Within an animal cell centrosome, there is a pair of small organelles called the centrioles. During animal cell division, the centrosome divides and the centrioles replicate (make new copies) whereas each chromosome in its condensed form consists of two chromatids joined at some point along the length. This point of attachment is called centromere.

(c) An aster is a cellular structure shaped like a star, formed around each centrosome during mitosis in an animal cell whereas spindle fibers are aggregates of microtubules that move chromosomes during cell division.

(d) A haploid cell is a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes. Gametes are haploid cells that are produced by meiosis whereas a diploid cell is a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes. One set of chromosomes is donated from each parent.

Question 14

"First meiotic division is the reduction division". What does the word 'reduction' refer to in this statement?

Solution 14

In this statement, reduction means that the number of chromosomes are reduced to half i.e. out of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans, only single set of chromosomes are passed on to the sex cells.

Question 15

"Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction". Why is it so?

Solution 15

Gametes must be produced by meiosis for sexual reproduction because the numbers of chromosomes are reduced to half during meiosis and then the normal diploid numbers of chromosomes are regained during the process of fertilization.

Question 16

Mention whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F). Give reason in support of your answer.

 

(a) As you grow from childhood to adult hood, your skin cells divide only to replace such cells that are lost from the surface.

(b) The unfertilized human egg has half the number of chromosomes of the body cells.

(c) Nuclear membrane in a mitotically dividing cell remains intact up to the metaphase and disappears only in the telophase.

(d) Mitotic cell division can be a mode of reproduction.

(e) Crossing-over between chromatids can occur only between homologous chromosomes.

Solution 16

(a) False (F); Surface skin cells are continuously lost and replaced by the underlying cells.

(b) True (T); All types of human cells, have 46 chromosomes. The only type of cell which does not have 46 chromosomes are the sex cells, which have only half of the number, so they have 23 chromosomes. The egg cell is a sex cell (found in female). So it must have 23 chromosomes.

(c) False (F); Nuclear membrane disappears in Prophase itself, however it reappears during Telophase.

(d) True (T); Mitotic cell division can be a mode of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms like amoeba or yeast cell which divides into two daughter cells.

(e) True (T); While the maternal and paternal chromosomes are separating, the chromatid material gets exchanged between the two members of a homologous pair resulting in genetic recombination.

Question 17

What are chromosomes?

Solution 17

Chromosomes are highly condensed coiled chromatic fibres made of DNA which carries the hereditary material of the organisms.

Question 18

What are genes?

Solution 18

Gene is a structural and functional unit of heredity and variations. Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides on a chromosome that encode particular proteins which express in the form of some particular feature of the body. In other words, gene is the DNA segment of the chromosome and it controls the expression of characteristics.

Question 19

Enumerate the various changes that occur in the nucleus of the cell during (a) prophase (b) anaphase of mitotic division. 

Solution 19

Changes which occur in the nucleus of the cell during mitosis:

During prophase:

 The nuclear membrane and the nucleolus disappear.

 The duplicated chromosomes begin to move towards the equator of the cell.

During anaphase:

 The two sister chromatids of each chromosome separate and are drawn apart towards the opposite poles.

Question 20

Name and explain the various stages of the cell cycle.

Solution 20

Stages of the cell cycle:

 Non-dividing interphase

 Dividing mitotic phase or M phase

Interphase:

In interphase, cells grow in size and volume and prepare for the next cell division.

It is divided into three phases:

 First growth phase (G1): RNA and proteins are synthesised, and the volume of the cytoplasm increases.

 Synthesis phase (S): DNA is synthesised and chromosomes are duplicated.

 Second growth phase (G2): RNA and proteins continue to be synthesised.

Mitosis:

Mitosis is the division of somatic cells in which two identical daughter cells are produced by the division of one parent cell.

It consists of the following phases:

 Karyokinesis: It is the division of the nucleus during cell division.

 Cytokinesis: It is the division of the cytoplasm during cell division.

Karyokinesis:

It occurs in four phases:

 Prophase: During prophase, chromatin fibres condense and thick chromosomes are visible. The nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear. A pair of centrioles duplicates. The spindle apparatus starts forming.

 Metaphase: Chromosomes are arranged on the metaphase plate or equatorial plane.

 Anaphase: The centromere divides, and the sister chromatids separate from each other. Spindle fibres contract and pull chromatids towards opposite poles.

 Telophase: Spindle apparatus disappears. Chromosomes become thin and turn into chromatin fibres. Nuclear membranes and nucleoli reappear.

Cytokinesis:

 The furrow continues to deepen in the cell, and it finally divides the cytoplasm forming two new daughter cells.

 In plant cells, a cell plate appears at the equatorial plane.

Question 21

Why is meiosis referred to as 'reductional division'?

Solution 21

Meiosis is a type of cell division in which each daughter cell receives half set of chromosomes. Hence, in meiosis, haploid daughter cells (n) are formed from a diploid parent cell (2n). Since the chromosome number is halved in the daughter cells, meiosis is also known as reductional division.

Question 22

Given below is a schematic diagram of a portion of DNA.

(a) How many strands are shown in the diagram?

(b) How many nucleotides have been shown in each strand?

(c) Name the parts numbered 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively.

(d) Name the DNA unit constituted by the parts 1, 2 and 3 collectively.

Solution 22

(a) 2

(b) 2 on each strand

(c) 1- Phosphate,2- Sugar, 3- Bases,4- Hydrogen Bond,5 - Base

(d)Nucleotide

Question 23

The three sketches given below (A, B and C) are intended to represent the replication of DNA. What should be their correct sequence starting with the first and ending with the last? ...........

Solution 23

B, C and A.

Question 24

The diagram below represents a stage during cell division. Study the same and then answer the questions that follow:

  

a. Name the parts labelled 1, 2 and 3.

b. Identify the above stage and give a reason to support your answer.

c. Mention where in the body this type of cell division occurs.

d. Name the stage prior to this stage and draw a diagram to represent the same.

Solution 24

a.  

1 - Centromere

2 - Spindle fibres

3 - Chromatids

 

b. The stage described in the diagram is the late anaphase of mitosis in an animal cell. The stage can be identified by the presence of separated chromatids which are found at the two poles of the cell. The appearance of the furrow in the cell membrane classifies the stage as the late anaphase.

 

c. The division is mitotic division and this kind of cell division occurs in all the cells of the body except for the reproductive cells.

 

d. The stage before anaphase is metaphase.

  

Question 25

Draw a labelled diagram to show the metaphase stage of mitosis in an animal cell having '6' chromosomes.

Solution 25

Question 26

The diagram given below represents a certain phenomenon which occurs during meiosis.

Name and explain the phenomenon by using the terms - homologous chromosomes, chromatids, and crossing-over.

Solution 26

The exchange of chromatids between homologous chromosomes is called crossing-over. This is the process by which the two chromosomes of a homologous pair exchange equal segments with each other.

Crossing over occurs in the first division of meiosis. At that stage each chromosome has replicated into two strands called sister chromatids. The two homologous chromosomes of a pair synapse, or come together. While the chromosomes are synapsed, breaks occur at corresponding points in two of the non-sister chromatids, i.e., in one chromatid of each chromosome.

Since the chromosomes are homologous, breaks at corresponding points mean that the segments that are broken off contain corresponding genes, i.e., alleles. The broken sections are then exchanged between the chromosomes to form complete new units, and each new recombined chromosome of the pair can go to a different daughter sex cell. It results in recombination of genes found on the same chromosome, called linked genes that would otherwise always be transmitted together.

Question 27

Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division in an animal cell. Examine it carefully and answer the questions which follow.

(a)Identify the stage. Give one reason in support of your answer.

(b) Name the cell organelle that forms the 'aster'.

(c) Name the parts labelled 1, 2 and 3.

(d) Name the stage that follows the one shown here. How is that stage identified?

(e) Mention two points of difference between mitosis and meiosis with regard to:

(i) The number of daughter cells produced.

(ii)The chromosome number in the daughter cells.

Solution 27

(a) Late prophase. Because the nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared.

(b) Centrioles.

(c) 1 - Centromere

2 - Chromatids.

3 - Spindle fibre.

(d) Metaphase. The centromeres of chromosomes are drawn to the equator by equal pull of two chromosomal spindle fibres that connects each centromere to the opposite poles, forming a metaphasic plate.

(e)

Mitosis

Meiosis

(i) Two daughter cells are produced.

(i) Four daughter cells are produced.

(ii) It is equational division i.e. the number of chromosome in the daughter cells or parent cells remains the same.

(ii) It is reductional division i.e. the number of chromosomes is reduced to half in the daughter cells.

Question 28

Given ahead are three diagrammatic sketches (A, B and C) of one and the same particular phase during mitotic type of cell division.

(a) Identify the phase ..............

(b) What is the diploid number of chromosomes shown in them? ................

(c) Identify whether these are animal cells or plant cell? Give reasons.

A .................

B .................

C .................

Solution 28

(a) Metaphase.

(b) 4.

(c) A - Animal

B - Animal

C - Plant

Question 29

Shown below are four stages (A, B, C, D) (not in sequence) of a certain kind of cell division.

(a) Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? Give two reasons .............

(b) Is it undergoing mitosis or meiosis? ..................

(c) What should be the correct sequence of these four stages among themselves? ..................

(d) Name the stage that should precede the earliest of these stages..............

(e) Draw the stage named above inside the blank space provided.

Solution 29

(a) This is an animal cell because:

(i) The outline is circular (in plants it would be angular {rectangular or polygonal}) and cell wall is absent.

(ii) Centrosomes on centrioles are present. (These are found only in animal cells)

(b) Mitosis.

(c) B, C, D, A.

(d) Interphase.

(e)

Question 30

Given below is a diagram representing a stage during mitotic cell division. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.

  

 

(a) Is it a plant cell or an animal cell? Give a reason to support your answer.

(b) Identify the stage shown.

(c) Name the stage that follows the one shown here. How is that stage identified?

(d) How will you differentiate between mitosis and meiosis on the basis of the chromosome number in the daughter cells?

(e) Draw a duplicated chromosome and label its parts.

Solution 30

(a) It is a plant cell because centrioles are not shown in the diagram.

(b) Prophase

(c) Metaphase. Chromosomes arrange themselves on the metaphase or equatorial plate.

(d) Difference between mitosis and meiosis based on the chromosome number in daughter cells: 

Mitosis

Meiosis

Chromosome number remains the same as that of parent cells.

Daughter cells receive only half the number of chromosomes from parent cells.

 

(e) Duplicated chromosome:

  

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