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Class 10 SELINA Solutions Biology Chapter 16 - Pollution - A Rising Environmental Problem

Pollution - A Rising Environmental Problem Exercise Ex. 1

Solution A.1

(d) The dust raised during road-cleaning

Solution A.2

(b) Ozone

Solution A.3

(b) BS IV

Solution B.1

(i) SO2

(ii) Bromochlorodifluoromethane and chlorofluoromethane

Solution B.2

 

Column I

Column II (Answers)

(i)     Chlorofluocarbons (CFCs) 

(ii)   Flyash

(iii) Cow dung            

(iv)  CO2 and methane

(v)    Sulphur dioxide               

(vi)  Iodine - 131

(f) Ozone depletion

(e) Industrial Waste

(b) Biodegradable

(a) Global Warming

(d) Acid Rain

(c) Nuclear Radiation Pollutant

 

Solution B.3

(i) vehicular air

(ii) X-ray

(iii) hot

(iv) domestic activities

Solution B.4

Biodegradable wastes: peels of vegetables and fruits, grass, paper

Solution C.1

(i) Rivers contaminated with sewage:

(a) A number of waterborne diseases are produced by the pathogens present in polluted water, affecting humans as well as animals.

(b) The flora and fauna of rivers, sea and oceans is adversely affected.

(ii) Too much gaseous exhausts containing CO2 and SO2:

(a) The high concentration of CO2 in atmosphere has been the main component of the green house effect that has caused global warming i.e. the rise of atmospheric temperature in recent years. Global warming causes melting of snow caps rise in sea levels.

(b) SO2 is poisonous and irritates the respiratory system of animals and humans. A continuous exposure to SO2 has been reported to damage the lungs and increase the rate of mortality.

(c) SO2 is also responsible for acid rain

(iii) Pesticides such as DDT used in agriculture:

(a) Pesticides kill soil microbes which are responsible to recycle the nutrients in the soil.

(b) Pesticides can enter the food chain and affect the health of humans as well as animals. It can cause damage to the lungs and central nervous system, failures of reproductive organs and dysfunctions of the immune system, endocrine system, and exocrine system, as well as potential cancer risks and birth defects.

(iv) Prolonged noise such as the one produced by crackers :

(a) Prolonged exposure to the high decibel noise damages ear drums and can bring permanent hearing impairment.

(b) Noise pollution can lead to high blood pressure (hypertension), constant headache, lack of concentration.

Solution C.2

Three major constituents of sewage:

  • Kitchen wastes
  • Sanitary waste
  • Waste from agricultural lands

Solution C.3

The common sources of oil spills are: The overturned oil tankers, offshore oil mining and Oil Refineries.

The sea birds and sea animals sometimes get thick, greasy coating on their bodies due to oil spills.

  • Sea birds may ingest their oil coated. This may irritate their digestive system, may damage liver and kidney.
  • Oil spills lead to the death of sea birds as well as sea animals.

Solution C.4

Measures to minimise noise pollution:

(i) Use of loud speakers should be banned.

(ii) Airports should be located away from the residential area.

Solution C.5

'Swachh Bharat Abhiyan' is a significant cleanliness campaign started by the Government of India. It was officially launched on 2nd October 2014 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who took the cleanliness pledge at India Gate in Delhi.

 

Objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:

  • To clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country's cities and towns
  • To eliminate open defecation through the construction of individual, cluster and community toilets
  • To establish accountable mechanisms of monitoring latrine use
  • To achieve efficient solid and liquid waste management systems

Solution D.1

(a) Pollution: Pollution is the addition of any such constituent to air, water or land which deteriorates the natural quality of the environment.

 

(b) Waste: Waste is any unwanted or undesired material or substance resulting from industrial, commercial mining and agricultural operations, and from community activities.

 

(c) Air pollution: Air pollution means degradation of the air quality which harmfully affects the living organisms as well as certain objects.

 

(d) Oil spills: Oil spills are accidental discharges of petroleum in oceans or estuaries.

 

(e) Pesticides: Pesticides are substances used to kill, repel, or control certain forms of plant or animal life that are considered to be pests.

 

(f) Sanitary landfills: Sanitary landfills are the places where the wastes are dumped in a ground depression and covered with dirt every day.

 

(g) Noise: Noise is defined as any unpleasant/loud undesired sound interfering with one's hearing and concentration.

Solution D.2

(a) Differences between sewage and effluents:

Sewage

Effluents

Sewage is the liquid waste from domestic activities.

Effluents are the liquid wastes produced by factories.

 

(b) Differences between biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste:

Biodegradable waste

Non-biodegradable waste

1. Biodegradable wastes are substances which can be broken down by microorganisms into harmless and non-toxic substances.

1. Non-biodegradable wastes are substances which cannot be broken down by microorganisms.

2. Examples: Leaves, dung.

2. Examples: Plastic, glass.

 

(c) Differences between smoke and smog:

Smoke

Smog

Smoke contains a lot of particulate pollutants which pollute the air.

Smoke mixed with dust particles and small drops of fog is called smog.

 

Solution E.1

(i) Industrial Waste:

Large number of industries produces waste water which contains various types of chemical pollutants. Such wastes are commonly discharged into the rivers. These chemicals cause irritation to the body systems of fish.

(ii) Thermal Pollution:

Many industries such as thermal power plants, oil refineries, nuclear plants use water for cooling their machinery. This hot waste water may be 8-10oC warmer than the intake water. This hot water is released into the nearby streams, rivers or the sea and causes warming. The sudden fluctuation in the temperature of water kills the fishes and harms the plant life growing in it.

Solution E.2

(i) Noise Pollution

(ii) Industrial machines, workshops, trains, loud conversation, loudspeakers, etc.

(iii) Effects of noise pollution:

I. It lowers efficiency of work.

II. It disturbs sleep and leads to nervous irritability.

Solution E.3

(i) Ozone layer depletion is a phenomenon in which certain gaseous compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) break down into chlorine atoms which in turn break down ozone (O3) into oxygen (O2) and O.

 

(ii) Sources of ozone layer depletion:

Gaseous compounds such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) released from refrigerators, aerosol spray cans and packaging material styrofoam.

 

(iii) Effects of ozone layer depletion on humans:

 Sun burn

 Genetic disorders

 Skin cancer

Solution E.4

The picture shows the cleanliness campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan recently started by the Indian Government. 

 

(i) This campaign was launched on 2nd October 2014 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

 

(ii) Objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan:

  • To clean the streets, roads and infrastructure of the country's cities and towns
  • To eliminate open defecation through the construction of individual, cluster and community toilets
  • To establish accountable mechanisms of monitoring latrine use
  • To achieve efficient solid and liquid waste management systems

Solution E.5

(a) Air pollution. Air pollution means degradation of the air quality which harmfully affects the living organisms as well as certain objects.

 

(b) Gaseous pollution and particulate pollution.

 

(c) Gaseous pollution: The exhaust given out by vehicles is the source of gaseous pollution, e.g., cars or vehicles running on petrol or diesel.

Particulate pollution: The smoke released by the factory chimneys into the air are the main sources of particulate pollution, e.g., factory chimneys, brick kilns.

 

(d) Control of air pollution:

 Use of unleaded petrol and CNG in automobiles.

 Installation of tall chimneys in factories and fitting them with filters and electrostatic precipitators.

 Planting more and more trees along the roadside or on wasteland. 

Solution E.6

(a) Acid rain. Gases such as CO2, SO2 and oxides of nitrogen get dissolved in rain drops falling on the earth as rain. This constitutes acid rain.

 

(b) Main sources of acid rain:

 Exhaust from vehicles contains CO2, SO2 and CO.

 Smoke released by factory chimneys contain CO2, SO2 and oxides of nitrogen.

 Burning of garbage released CO2 and other harmful gases.

 Brick kilns produce ash which mixes with air to contribute to acid rain.

 

(c) Harmful effects of acid rain on the living organisms:

 Damage to vegetation due to soil pollution.

 Fish and other aquatic organisms are harmed due to increased acidity of water in lakes and rivers. 

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