SELINA Solutions for Class 10 Biology Chapter 1 - Cell - The Structural and Functional Unit Of Life

Page / Exercise

Chapter 1 - Cell - The Structural and Functional Unit Of Life Exercise Ex. 1

Question A.1

Identify the cellular structures with the help of the following clues:

(a) It synthesizes the respiratory enzymes.

(b) It is made up of lipo protein.

(c) A non-living rigid layer surrounding the plasma membrane.

(d) Supportive framework for the cell.

(e) It consists of cisternae, vesicles and vacuoles.

(f) It destroys foreign substances.

(g) It gives turgidity to the plant cells.

(h) It is made up of DNA threads.

(i) It contains chromatin fibres.

(j) It initiates and regulates cell division.

Solution A.1

(a) Mitochondria

(b) Cell membrane/plasma membrane

(c) Cell wall

(d) Endoplasmic reticulum

(e) Golgi apparatus

(f) Lysosomes

(g) Vacuoles

(h) Chromatin fibres.

(i) Nucleus

(j) Centrosome

Question A.2

Give two examples of each:

(a) Unicellular animals

(b) Unicellular plants

(c) Cell organelles

(d) Cell inclusions

(e) Stains which make the nucleus distinct

Solution A.2

(a) Unicellular animals - Amoeba, Paramoecium

(b) Unicellular plants - Chlamydomonas, Diatoms

(c) Cell organelles - Mitochondria, Nucleus

(d) Cell inclusions - Vacuoles, Granules

(e) Stains which make the nucleus distinct - Iodine, Eosin

Question A.3

Name the following:

(a) A plastid without pigment.

(b) A pigment which is not found in plastids.

(c) The orange-red pigment found in the chromoplast.

(d) Scattered Golgi complex, found in plant cells.

(e) Amoeboid blood cells of human body.

(f) The smallest cell of human body.

(g) Bean-shaped cells of stomata.

(h) The part of cytoplasm which is devoid of the organelles.

(i) The folds/finger-like projections from the inner wall of the mitochondria.

(j) The tubules of Golgi complex.

Solution A.3

(a) Leucoplast

(b) Anthocyanin

(c) Carotene

(d) Dictyosomes

(e) White blood cells (WBCs)

(f) Red blood cells (RBCs)

(g) Guard cells

(h) Cytosol

(i) Cristae

(j) Cisternae

Question B.1

Define the following terms:

(a) Cell

(b) Organelles

(c) Cytoplasm

(d) Protoplasm

(e) Nucleus

Solution B.1

(a) Cell: Cell is the structural and functional unit of life capable of independent existence.

(b) Organelles: Organelles are specialized and membrane-bound living structures in a cell concerned with definite functions.

(c) Cytoplasm: Cytoplasm is the part of the cell which is inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus.

(d) Protoplasm: The living parts of the cell which consist of cytoplasm, nucleus and other living bodies collectively constitute protoplasm or protoplast.

(e) Nucleus: Nucleus is a large spherical body lying nearly in the centre of the cytoplasm.

Question B.2

Distinguish between the following pairs:

(a) Plant cell and animal cell

(b) Cell wall and cell membrane

(c) Centrosome and chromosome

(d) Chloroplast and chromoplast

Solution B.2

(a) Differences between plant cell and animal cell:

Plant cell

Animal cell

1. It is usually larger in size.

1. It is usually smaller in size.

2. It consists of a definite cell wall made up of cellulose.

2. It lacks a cell wall.

3. It consists of large and prominent vacuoles.

3. It consists of small and temporary vacuoles.

4. It consists of less dense cytoplasm.

4. It consists of denser and more granular cytoplasm.

 

(b) Differences between cell wall and cell membrane:

Cell wall

Cell membrane

1. It is the outermost covering in plant cells.

1. It is the outermost covering in animal cells.

2. It is non-living and rigid layer.

2. It is thin, flexible and living membrane.

3. It is freely permeable.

3. It is semi-permeable.

4. It is made up of cellulose.

4. It is made up of lipoproteins.

 

(c) Differences between centrosome and chromosome:

Centrosome

Chromosome

1. It is a clear space of cytoplasm located close to the nucleus.

1. It is a highly coiled structure contained within the nucleus.

2. Usually one centrosome is present per cell.

2. Several chromosomes can be present per cell.

3. It consists of two rod-like structures made of protein tubulin.

3. It consists of DNA coiled around histone protein core.

4. It initiates and regulates cell division.

4. It transfers hereditary characters from parents to offspring.

 

(d) Differences between chloroplast and chromoplast:

Chloroplast

Chromoplast 

1. It is green in colour.

1. It is variously coloured.

2. It contains the pigment chlorophyll.

2. It contains pigments such as xanthophyll and carotene.

3. It traps solar energy for photosynthesis.

3. It imparts colour to flowers and fruits.