21st of March 2017

Please answer these all science' paper is tomorrow.

i)Define Brisk Effervescence.

ii)What are trends?.Explain briefly trends in Modern Periodic Table.

Vijay Jethi - CBSE - Class X

Tuesday, March 21, 2017 at 17:47:PM


Brisk effervescence is defined as the rapid or vigorous evolution of a gas in a chemical reaction. For example, when hydrochloric acid is added to sodium bicarbonate, bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are formed vigorously.

The properties which show gradual variation in a group and in a period, and repeat themselves after a certain interval of atomic number are called periodic properties.


  • The valency of an element is determined by the number of valence electrons present in the outermost shell.
  • In a group, all the elements have the same number of valence electrons.
  • On moving from left to right in each short period, the valency increases from 1 to 4 and then decreases to zero.

      Atomic size

  • Atomic size refers to the radius of the atom.
  • It is the distance between the centre of the nucleus and the outermost shell of an isolated atom.
  • In a period, the atomic radius decreases from left to right. This is because the electrons are added to the same shell and so they experience a greater pull from the nucleus.
  • Moving in a group from top to bottom, the atomic radius increases as new shells are added, bringing the outermost electrons farther from the nucleus.

      Metallic & Non-metallic Properties

  • Metals show a tendency to lose electrons and are said to be electropositive.
  • Non-metals show a tendency to accept or share electrons and are said to be electronegative.
  • Moving from left to right in a period, the metallic character decreases and the non-metallic character increases. The atomic size decreases and so the electrons are not released easily.
  • In a group, the metallic character increases from top to bottom and the non-metallic character decreases. This is because, the atomic size increases and so the valence electrons can be easily removed.
  • Elements on the left of periodic table are all metals and on the right of periodic table are all non-metals.
  • A zigzag line in the periodic table separates the metals from non-metals. The borderline elements show intermediate properties and are called metalloids.


Tuesday, March 21, 2017 at 18:01:PM