Important Questions For You!

Chapter 1: The First War of Independence, 1857


1. Mention two reasons that led to the failure of the First War of Independence.                                            [2M]

2.
Mention two administrative changes that the British government brought about regarding the East India Company’s rule in India                                                                                                                                                   [2M]

3.
What impact did the uprising of 1857 have on the Mughal rule?

4.
Mention any two features of the Queen Victoria’s Proclamation announced after the Revolt of 1857.

5.
Discuss any three economic causes of the Revolt of 1857.

6.
Explain any three military causes of the First War of Independence.                                                                        [3M]


Chapter 2: Growth of Nationalism


1. State two early demands of the Indian National Congress.                                                                            [2M]

2
. Mention any two repressive colonial policies of Lord Lytton.                                                                                            [2M]

3
. Mention any three factors which gave rise to the growth of nationalism in India.                                                              [3M]

4
. Name any two organisations which were the precursors of the Indian National Congress.

5
. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the person in the picture.                                                                                                                         [1M]
  2. Mention any of his two social reforms.                                                                                                                   [2M]

 

Chapter 3: First phase of the Indian National Movement


1. What methods did the Early Nationalists use to achieve their objectives?                                                                         [2M]

2
. State any two contributions of Surendranath Banerjee.                                                                                                  [2M]

3
. Discuss any three demands of the Early Nationalists.                                                                                                     [3M]

4
. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:                                                                                     [4M]

  1. Identify the person in the picture.                                                                                                                         [1M]
  2. Mention his two contributions in the Indian politics.                                                                                                [2M]


Chapter 4: Second Phase of the National Movement


1. What was the attitude of the Assertive Nationalists towards the Swedeshi Movement?                                                      [2M]

2.
Mention two causes for the rise of Assertive nationalist.                                                                                                 [2M]

3.
State two reasons given by Lord Curzon to justify the partition of Bengal.                                                                       [2M]

4.
Discuss any three achievements of the Assertive Nationalists.                                                                                        [3M]

5.
Discuss any three impacts of the Swadeshi and the Boycott movements with reference to the partition of Bengal.              [3M]

6.
Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the person in the picture.                                                                                                                        [1M]
  2. Mention his two contributions in the Indian politics.                                                                                               [2M]


Chapter 5: The Muslim League


1. Discuss any three factors leading to the formation of the Muslim league.                                                                        [3M]

2
. Explain any three objectives of the Muslim league.                                                                                                       [4M]

3
. Discuss any three significance of the Lucknow Pact.                                                                                                      [3M]

4
. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the person in the picture.                                                                                                                        [1M]
  2. Name one famous college founded by him.                                                                                                           [1M]
  3. Discuss the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the formation of the Muslim league.                                          [2M]


Chapter 6: Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement [5M]


1. Mention any two causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement.                                                                                          [2M]

2
. Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement?                                                                                           [2M]

3
. State any two provisions of the Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919.

4
. What was the Khilafat Movement? Why was it launched?                                                                                               [3M]

5
. Discuss any four impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement.                                                                                         [4M]


6
. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Name the famous march undertaken by Gandhi. Where did he begin this march? State two of its features.               [3M]
  2. Discuss the Gandhi Irwin Pact as a consequence of this movement.                                                                       [3M]


Chapter 7: Quit India Movement [2M]


1. State two reasons for the launching of the Quit India Movement.                                                                                  [2M]

2
. Why did the Muslim League and Congress oppose the Cripps Mission?                                                                           [2M]

3
. Discuss any three significance of the Quit India Movement.

                                                                                           [3M]

Chapter 8: Forward Bloc and the INA [2M]


Q1. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the leader                                                                                                                                            [1M]
  2. Name the party formed by him. State any three objectives of the party.                                                                [4M]
  3. Mention three main objectives of the INA.                                                                                                           [3M]


Chapter 9: Independence and Partition of India


1. Why was the Mountbatten’s Plan finally accepted by the Congress?                                                                               [2M]

2
. Mention two features of the Indian Independence Act with regard to the partition of the country.                                    [2M]

3
. Mention any three clauses of the Mountbatten Plan?                                                                                                    [3M]

4
. Discuss any four clauses of the Cabinet Mission Plan.                                                                                                   [4M]

5
. Discuss any four clauses of the Indian Independence Act.                                                                                             [4M]



Chapter 10: The First World War


1. Name the two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I.                                                                                     [2M]

2.
Why did the USA enter into the First World War?                                                                                                          [2M]

3
. Mention any two territorial arrangements made after the First World War.                                                                      [3M]

4
. Why was the League of Nations formed? Explain any two objectives of the league.                                                         [3M]

5
. Discuss any four causes of the First World War.                                                                                                            [4M]

 

Chapter 11: Rise of Dictatorships


1. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the leader. How did his personality help him to emerge as a popular leader in his country?                           [3M]
  2.  Mention any three factors that contributed to the rise of Nazism in Germany.                                                         [2M]


2
. Explain four factors that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy.                                                                                             [4M]

3
. Bring out three similarities between the Nazi and the fascist ideologies.                                                                          [2M]


Chapter 12: The Second World War


1. Give two reasons for the failure of the League of Nations.                                                                                             [2M]

2
. Why did Hitler invade Poland?                                                                                                                                     [2M]

3
. What made Japan surrender to the Allies in 1945?                                                                                                        [2M]

4
. Discuss any four causes of the Second World War.                                                                                                        [4M]

5
. What is meant by the term ‘Cold War’? Why did it originate?                                                                                         [3M]

6
. Discuss any three consequences of the Second World War.                                                                                            [4M]


Chapter 13: United Nations


1. Mention any two objectives of the United Nations.                                                                                                       [2M]

2
. Discuss any two functions of the General Assembly.                                                                                                     [2M]

3
. What is the composition of the Security Council?                                                                                                         [2M]

4
. Discus any three powers and functions of the International Court of Justice.                                                                  [3M]


Chapter 14: Major Agencies of the United Nations


1. Mention the contributions of UNESCO in the field of education.                                                                                     [2M]

2
. Name any three functions of the WHO.                                                                                                                       [3M]

3
. Discuss any three functions of the UNICEF.                                                                                                                 [3M]


Chapter 15: Non-Aligned Movement


1. What was Non Alignment Movement?                                                                                                                         [2M]

2
. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

  1. Identify the three prominent leaders in the above picture. They were the founders of which Movement?                  [3M]
  2. Mention any two aims and objectives of the movement.                                                                                       [2M]
  3. Briefly discuss the role of Jawaharlal Nehru in this movement.                                                                              [2M]

 

Civics


Chapter 1: The Union Parliament


1. What is meant by the residuary Powers of the Parliament?                                                                                           [1M]

2
. How many members are nominated by the President in the Lok Sabha? Which community do these members represent?  [1M]

3
. What is the required quorum to hold the meetings of the Lok Sabha?                                                                            [1M]


4
. State the minimum number of times the Lok Sabha must meet in a year.                                                                      [1M]

5
. Who is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha?                                                                                                     [1M] 


6
. Who presides over the joint session of the two Houses of Parliament?                                                                           [1M]

7
. How is the speaker of the Lok Sabha elected? State two disciplinary functions of the speaker.                                         [3M]

8
. Explain three ways in which legislature exercises control over the Executive?                                                                 [3M] 


9
. Mention three Special powers of Rajya Sabha that is not usually enjoyed by the other House.                                         [3M]

10. Mention any two judicial and two electoral powers of the Indian Parliament.                                                                [4M]


Chapter 2: The President and the Vice President


1. Name one condition under which the President can use his discretionary power to appoint the Prime Minister?                [1M]

2
. Name the official procedure by which the President can be removed?                                                                          [1M]

3
. Mention one important occasion when the president addresses a Joint session of Parliament.                                        [1M]

4
. Mention one discretionary power of the President.                                                                                                      [1M]

5
. State two qualifications required to become the Vice-President of the country.                                                             [1M]

6
. Mention any two judicial powers of the President.                                                                                                      [1M]

7
. How is the President of India elected?                                                                                                                       [3M]

8
. Explain three types of emergencies that President is empowered to proclaim.                                                               [3M]

9
. Explain briefly any four ‘Executive Powers’ of the President.                                                                                         [4M]

10.
Discuss any three functions of the Vice-President.                                                                                                     [4M]


Chapter 3: Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers


1. What is the meaning of the Collective responsibility of the Cabinet?                                                                             [1M]

2
. Under what circumstances can a non-member of the Parliament be made a minister?                                                    [1M]

3
. Who appoints the Prime Minister and the cabinet?                                                                                                      [1M]

4
. Discuss any two administrative functions of the Cabinet.                                                                                             [1M]

5
. Explain three differences between the Cabinet and the Council of ministers.                                                                  [3M]

6
. State any two powers of the Prime Minister in relation to the President.                                                                        [3M]

7
. Mention any four legislative powers of the Cabinet.                                                                                                     [4M]

8.
Discuss any four powers of the Prime Minister.                                                                                                            [4M]


Chapter 4: The Supreme Court


1. What is the composition of the Supreme Court of India?                                                                                             [1M]

2
. What is meant by a 'Single Integrated Judicial System' as provided in the Indian Constitution?                                      [1M]

3
. What is the revisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?                                                                                              [1M]

4
. In what way is the Supreme Court guardian of the fundamental rights?                                                                       [1M]

5
. What are the qualifications of the Judges of the Supreme Court?                                                                                 [3M]

6
. What do we mean when we refer to the Supreme Court as the ‘Court of Record’?                                                          [3M]

7
. Why is judiciary independent of the Executive?                                                                                                          [3M]

8
. Discuss the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.                                                                                             [3M]


Chapter 5: The High Court and the Subordinate Courts

 
1. What is appellate jurisdiction of the High Court?                                                                                                       [1M]

2
. State one advantage of the Lok Adalat.                                                                                                                   [1M]

3
. Name the highest civil court in a district.                                                                                                                 [1M]

4
. State one other qualification required to become a Judge of the High Court apart from Indian citizenship.                    [1M]

5
. How is the High Court a ‘Court of Record’?                                                                                                              [1M]

6
. State one point of distinction between a District Judge and a sessions Judge.                                                             [1M]

7
. Name the writs that the High Courts are empowered to issue.                                                                                  [1M]

8
. Discuss the power of the judicial review of the High Courts.                                                                                     [2M]

9
. Discuss the original jurisdiction of the High Court.                                                                                                   [3M]

10
. What is revisory jurisdiction of the High court?                                                                                                      [3M]

Chapter 1: The First War of Independence, 1857


1. Mention two reasons that led to the failure of the First War of Independence.

Solution: Two reasons that led to the failure of the First War of Independence:

• The revolt was not widespread in nature. The western, eastern and the southern parts of India remained unaffected by the revolt.
• The Indian rebels were not armed with modern weapons. They lacked in organisation and planning. On the contrary, the English soldiers were armed with modern weapons and ammunition.


2. Mention two administrative changes that the British government brought about regarding the East India Company’s rule in India
Solution: Two administrative changes that the British government brought about regarding the East India Company’s rule in India:

• The power to govern India was transferred from Company
• The Board of Directors and the Board of Control of India was abolished and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created. He was to look after the formulation of the British policies in India. His salary and allowances were to be paid out of the Indian revenues.


3. What impact did the uprising of 1857 have on the Mughal rule?
Solution: The uprising of 1857 resulted in the end of the Mughal rule in India. After the revolt, the sons and grandson of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal emperor were shot dead. He was exiled. The Mughal Empire in India came to an end after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar.

4. Mention any two features of the Queen Victoria’s Proclamation announced after the Revolt of 1857.
Solution: Two features of the Queen Victoria’s Proclamation announced after the Revolt of 1857:

• The British government will follow a policy of non-intervention in social and religious matters of the Indians.
• The government will treat the European and Indian subjects equally.


5. Discuss any three economic causes of the Revolt of 1857.
Solution: Three economic causes of the Revolt of 1857:

Exploitation of Economic Resources: The British over exploited the resources of the country. India was forced to export raw materials to Britain at exorbitantly low rates. Plantation products and food grains were exported to Britain. While no import duties were imposed on readymade British goods, high import duties were levied on the Indian goods exported to Britain. This resulted in the decline of handicraft and many subsidiary industries in India.
Drain of Wealth: The British after establishing their rule in Bengal began to purchase raw materials from India meant to be exported to England out of Indian revenues. The salaries and pension of British officers were also paid from the Indian revenues. This marked the beginning of the drain of the Indian wealth to Britain.
Decay of Cottage and handicraft Industries: The Indian handicraft industry began to decline due to the free trade policy of the English. The Indian goods were not able to compete with the cheap English machine made goods. Further, high trade duties were imported on the Indian goods entering into Britain. This resulted in the loss of livelihood of millions of artisans and weavers.


6. Explain any three military causes of the First War of Independence.
Solution: Three military causes of the First War of Independence:

Ill-treatment of the Indian Soldiers: The British government ill-treated the Indian soldiers. They were denied better pay and facilities. Often they were also humiliated by the English officers. No Indian soldier could rise above the post of the ‘subedar’ in the Indian army. The British had no regards for the Indian sentiments.
General Service Enlistment Act: The Company passed a new law in 1856, according to which a sepoy had to travel overseas whenever required by the Company. It was believed by the Hindus that one could lose his caste status and religion if he crosses the seas. The sepoys thought the Company was trying to defame their religion.
Low Salaries: The wages and salaries of the Indian soldiers were too low to support their families. The British soldiers received higher salaries.

Chapter 2: Growth of Nationalism


1. State two early demands of the Indian National Congress.
Solution: Two early demands of the Indian National Congress:

• Greater representation of the Indians in the legislative bodies
• To appoint Indians on higher position in the government offices


2. Mention any two repressive colonial policies of Lord Lytton.

Solution: Two repressive colonial policies of Lord Lytton:

• A grand durbar was organised by Lord Lytton in Delhi in 1877 to proclaim Queen Victoria as the Empress of India. A great famine also broke out in Bengal at this time. While millions of rupees were spent on the grand durbar, nothing was done to help Indians suffering from famine.
• Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 by Lord Lytton which empowered the government to confiscate the newspapers if they print anything against the British government.


3. Mention any three factors which gave rise to the growth of nationalism in India.

Solution: Three factors which gave rise to the growth of nationalism in India:

The Educated Indians: The educated Indians were not appointed on high posts. High posts in civil and military services were only reserved for the British. Their chances of promotion were also weak. As a result, the educated Indians began to feel alienated by the British.
The Ilbert bill was passed in 1883 by Lord Ripon. This bill sought to create political equality by vesting Indian judges with the power to try the Europeans or the British citizens residing in India. However, due to vehement protests by the Europeans, the bill was withdrawn. This enraged the Indians and began to feel the need for organising themselves.
Many newspapers and magazines started in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Some of them were Amrit Bazar Patrika, the Bengali, the tribune, the pioneer, the Hindu etc. The newspapers crticised the unjust policies of the British and exposed the true nature of the British rule in India.


4. Name any two organisations which were the precursors of the Indian National Congress.
Solution: Two organisations which were the precursors of the Indian National Congress were the East India Association founded in 1866 and The Indian National Conference founded in 1883.


5. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:


a. Identify the person in the picture.

b. Mention any of his two social reforms.
Solution: 
a. The person in the picture is Raja ram Mohan Roy.
b. Two social reforms:
• Raja Ram Mohan Roy worked relentlessly for abolishing the practise of ‘Sati’. It was largely due to his efforts that ‘Sati’ was declared illegal in 1828.
• He encouraged female education. He also opposed the ‘purdah system’ and ‘child marriages’.

Chapter 3: First phase of the Indian National Movement


1. What methods did the Early Nationalists use to achieve their objectives?
Solution: The methods used by the Early Nationalists to achieve their objectives:

• They followed the three P’s i.e. Petition, Prayers and Protests. This was done by sending petitions, request letters to protest against the unjust policies of the government.
• They held meetings and gave speeches for pressing their demands. They criticised the policies of the government through the press.


2. State any two contributions of Surendranath Banerjee.

Solution: Two contributions of Surendranath Banerjee:

• He founded the Indian Association in 1876 to oppose the unjust policies of the British. The aim of this association was to educate the people and to arouse the political consciousness and unity among the Indians.
• Surendranath Banerjee convened the Indian National Conference in 1883 at Kolkata to create an all India political organisation. This organisation later merged with the Indian National Congress in 1886.


3. Discuss any three demands of the Early Nationalists.

Solution: Three demands of the Early Nationalists:

• The Early nationalists demanded control over the public purse and raised the slogan, ‘No taxation without representation’.
• They demanded the government to reduce expenditures on the army and to spend the saved money on welfare of the people.


4. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

Identify the person in the picture.
Mention his two contributions in the Indian politics.
Solution:
(a) The person in picture is Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
(b) His contributions:
• He criticised the government for incurring huge expenditure over army, imposing taxes over cotton and for racially discriminating against the Indians in appointment to high posts.
• His untiring efforts led to a reduction in toll tax.

Chapter 4: Second Phase of the National Movement


1. What was the attitude of the Assertive Nationalists towards the Swedeshi Movement?
Solution: The attitude of the Assertive Nationalists towards the Swedeshi Movement

• The Assertive nationalists believed that Swadeshi aimed at making the country self-reliant and self-sufficient.
• The Assertive Nationalists used Swadeshi as a tool not only to promote the Indian industries but also to hit the British economic interests.

 

2. Mention two causes for the rise of Assertive nationalist.
Solution: Two causes for the rise of Assertive nationalists:

• The work of Early Nationalists had exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British. Some political developments like the passing of the Vernacular Press Act and the reduction in number of Indian members in the Calcutta Corporation convinced the Assertive nationalists that the British would never work in the interest of Indian and its people and the latter will have to fight for their rights.
• There were recurrent famines in the country from 1896 to 1900. Millions of people died in these famines. Nothing was done on the part of the government to provide relief to the people during famines. This led to the rise of Assertive nationalism.


3. State two reasons given by Lord Curzon to justify the partition of Bengal.
Solution: Two reasons given by Lord Curzon to justify the partition of Bengal:

• Bengal was too large a province to be administered by a single provincial government.
• The division to Bengal would help in effectively managing the province.


4. Discuss any three achievements of the Assertive Nationalists.
Solution: Three achievements of the Assertive Nationalists:

• The Assertive Nationalists instilled among the Indians the spirit of active nationalism. They made people realise that policy of non-violent resistance is essential to drive the British out of the country.
• They expressed their opinion and nationalistic ideas in vernacular languages and thus had a large mass base.
• By promoting the principles of Swadeshi and Boycott of foreign goods, the Assertive Nationalists promoted the principles of self-reliance.


5. Discuss any three impacts of the Swadeshi and the Boycott movements with reference to the partition of Bengal.
Solution: Three impacts of the Swadeshi and the Boycott movements with reference to the partition of Bengal:

• The Swadeshi and the Boycott movements brought people belonging to different sections of society closer to each other and they all participated in the anti-partition movement.
• The movement saw the flowering of nationalist poetry, prose and journalism. Poets like Tagore, Syed Abu Mohammed wrote many inspirational poets and songs which were sung by the people in Bengal.
• The Swadeshi Movement drew large number of people in the Anti-partition movement and prepared them to lead the future independence struggles in the country.


6. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

a. Identify the person in the picture.
b. Mention his two contributions in the Indian politics.
Solution: 
a. The person in the picture is Bipin Chandra Pal.
b. His contributions:
• He was a journalist who spread his nationalist ideas through the newspapers, ‘Bengal Public Opinion’, ‘The Tribune’ and ‘New India’. His writings were considered as seditious by the British government.
• He was in favour of imparting national education to students. According to him, national education should become the basis of the Indian national movement.

Chapter 5: The Muslim League


1. Discuss any three factors leading to the formation of the Muslim league.
Solution: Three factors leading to the formation of the Muslim league:

Policy of Divide and Rule: The British discriminated the Muslims against the Hindus as they held the Muslims responsible for the uprising of 1857. Later, after 1870, the British changed its attitude towards the Muslims in order to put a check on the rising tide of nationalism. They thus encouraged separatist and communal tendencies in the country.
Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: He was a great educationist and a social reformer. He believed that since the Hindus constitute the majority in the country, they would dominate the Muslims after the withdrawal of the British rule in India. Thus, he asked for Muslims to unite themselves.
Partition of Bengal: The partition of Bengal into East Bengal (Muslim majority region) and West Bengal (Hindu majority nation) was an attempt by the British to create a rift between the two communities. The British were supported by the Muslims as they promised that the New Province of East Bengal would be dominated by the Muslims.


2. Explain any three objectives of the Muslim league.

Solution: Three objectives of the Muslim League:

• To promote the feeling of loyalty towards the British among the Muslims of India.
• To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims and to represent their needs and aspirations to the government.
• To prevent the rise of feeling of hostilities between Muslims of India and other communities.


3. Discuss any three significance of the Lucknow Pact.

Solution: Significance of the Lucknow Pact:

• The Pact led to Hindu Muslim unity. While Congress accepted the scheme of separate electorates for the Muslims, the Muslim League accepted the principle of election and majority rule.
• The signing of the Lucknow Pact also reunited the Early and the Assertive Nationalists. (Both wings of the Congress were split in 1907 session at Surat).
• The unity between the Muslim League and the Congress strengthened the Indian national movement. Till now the government was repressing the national movement by following the policy of ‘divide and rule’.


4. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

a. Identify the person in the picture.
b. Name one famous college founded by him.
c. Discuss the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan in the formation of the Muslim league.
Solution:
a. The person in picture is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan.
b. He founded the Mohammedan Anglo-oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 which later became the Aligarh Muslim University.
c. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan believed that the Hindus and Muslims were different and the Muslims would have to embrace western education to make progress. He believed that since the Hindus constitute the majority in the country, they would dominate the Muslims after the withdrawal of the British rule in India. He was of the opinion that the continuation of the British rule would bring education and prosperity among the Muslims. He had already founded the United Indian Patriotic Association in 1888 mainly with the motive of opposing the Congress. His views made a great impact on the Muslim population which finally culminated into the formation of the Muslim League.

Chapter 6: Mahatma Gandhi and the National Movement


1. Mention any two causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Solution: Two causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement:

• The government in order to suppress the rising national sentiments in the country passed the Rowlatt Act which empowered the government to imprison any person without trial. Though Gandhi started a movement against this unjust Act, he believed that a mass movement is required to mobilise people against the British.
• The Sultan of Turkey was regarded as the ‘Caliph’ or the religious head of the Muslims. Most of Muslim sacred places were situated within the Turkish Empire. In the First World War, Britain was fighting against Turkey. This led to a wave of indignation amongst the Indian Muslims. The Muslim population in India started the Khilafat Movement which later became a part of the Non Cooperation movement.


2. Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement?

Solution: The non-cooperation movement was suspended by Gandhi due to the incident which occurred at Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh in 1922. About the procession of about 3000 people marched to the Chauri Chaura police station. After being fired upon, the mob turned violent and set the police station on fire killing 22 police men. This incident shocked Gandhi as he wanted to gain freedom by following the methods of non-violence. So he withdrew the movement on Feb. 12, 1922.

3. State any two provisions of the Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919.

Solution: Two provisions of the Rowlatt Act passed by the government in 1919:

• The Act empowered the government to arrest person without any warrant.
• The government could try person in seclusion. The right of Habeas Corpus was also suspend.


4. What was the Khilafat Movement? Why was it launched?

Solution: The Sultan of Turkey was regarded as the ‘Caliph’ or the religious head of the Muslims. Most of Muslim sacred places were situated within the Turkish Empire. In the First World War, Britain was fighting against Turkey. This led to a wave of indignation amongst the Indian Muslims. The Muslim population in India started the Khilafat Movement under the leadership of Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali. They formulated three point programmes which included that the Ottoman Caliph should retain his empire, the Caliph should be left with adequate territories to enable him to defend the Islamic faith and the Arab lands should remain under the Arabic rule.

5. Discuss any four impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Solution: Four impact of the Civil Disobedience Movement:

• The movement instilled patriotism among the people in the country which did not die down till the country became independent.
• The movement widened the base of the freedom struggle as people from different classes including workers, merchants, tribals and women participated in it.
• The Movement popularized new methods of propagandas. For example, the ‘Prabhat Pheris’ became popular in which groups of men and women roamed in the village and town singing patriotic songs.
• Many social reforms were initiated as a part of the Movement. Depressed classes were now given entry into the temples and access to wells.


6. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

a. Name the famous march undertaken by Gandhi. Where did he begin this march? State two of its features.
b. Discuss the Gandhi Irwin Pact as a consequence of this movement.
Solution: 
a. This march is the Salt March. He started this March from Dandi- a coastal town in Gujarat. Two features of this march were:
• The Salt March marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement as Gandhi made salt in violation of the Salt law.
• The Salt March a 24-day Salt March, which was non-violent in nature.

b. The government started negotiations with Gandhi (who was in jail) to bring an end to the Civil Disobedience Movement. This resulted in the signing of a pact between Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India and Gandhi which came to be known as the “Gandhi Irwin Pact”. Some terms of the Pact were:
• The government would withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
• It will also release all political prisoners except those who were guilty of violence.
• The Congress agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table Conference.

Chapter 7: Quit India Movement


1. State two reasons for the launching of the Quit India Movement.
Solution: Two reasons for the launching of the Quit India Movement:

• The Cripps Mission failed as it was not accepted to major political parties in India. Congress rejected it because the Mission did not promise complete independence to the country. The League rejected it because it did not promise the creation of a separate Muslim state.
• The Japanese army in 1942 had already attacked Burma and was fast approaching towards Assam. Gandhi felt the presence of British in India was an invitation to the Japanese troops to invade the country. Many leaders felt that the British must be forced out of the country. Thus, they launched the Quit India Movement asking the British government to quit India.


2. Why did the Muslim League and Congress oppose the Cripps Mission?
Solution: The Congress rejected the Cripps Mission because the Mission did not promise complete independence to the country. The League rejected it because it did not promise the creation of a separate Muslim state.

3. Discuss any three significance of the Quit India Movement.
Solution: Three significance of the Quit India Movement:

• Though the Movement was short lived, the people developed greater ability to struggle and sacrifice. It became evident that the British no longer would be able to rule India.
• The movement signified the mass uprising of the people. People from every state, class, caste, sex and creed participated in the Movement.

Chapter 8: Forward Bloc and the INA


Q1. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

a. Identify the leader
Solution: The leader in picture is Subhas Chandra Bose.

b. Name the party formed by him. State any three objectives of the party.

Solution: He formed the Forward Bloc within Congress. Three main objectives of the party:

• Abolition of the zamindari system
• To make the right to work as the fundamental right of the citizens


c. Mention three main objectives of the INA.
Solution: 
Three main objectives of the INA:

• To fight the British army with modern arms and weapons.
• To organise Indians living abroad and plan an armed revolution against the British Government.

Chapter 9: Independence and Partition of India


1. Why was the Mountbatten’s Plan finally accepted by the Congress?
Solution: The Mountbatten’s Plan finally accepted the Congress because of the following reasons:

• The large scale communal violence and clashes in the country convinced the people that the communal tensions could only be eased by partitioning British India.
• The League had joined the interim Government to obstruct the working of the Congress. The latter realised that it was not possible to work with the league.
• It was felt that only alternative to partition was a federation with a weak center. A smaller India with a strong central authority was better than a bigger state with a weak center.


2. Mention two features of the Indian Independence Act with regard to the partition of the country. 
Solution: Two features of the Indian Independence Act with regard to the partition of the country:

• The Independence Act laid down that the two separate dominions of India and Pakistan would be created. Pakistan was to comprise of NWFP, Sind, Baluchistan, west Punjab and East Bengal. The Boundary commission was to be established to demarcate the exact boundary between the nations.
• A plebiscite would be held in NWFP and Sylhet in East Bengal to decide if they want to join India or Pakistan. While the former joined Pakistan, the latter joined East Bengal or the present Bangladesh.


3. Mention any three clauses of the Mountbatten Plan?
Solution: Three clauses of the Mountbatten Plan were:

• To divide British India into India and Pakistan.
• It was for both the countries to decide about their relationship with British Commonwealth and with each other.
• The Princely states would be free to join either India or Pakistan.


4. Discuss any four clauses of the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Solution: Four clauses of the Cabinet Mission Plan:

• The Cabinet mission proposed the formation of the federal union of the British Provinces and princely states in India. The central government was to have control of the defence, foreign affairs and communications in the country.
• It was laid down that the Indian Union was to have its own executive and legislature and Provinces had the powers to enjoy complete autonomy for all subjects other than union subjects.
• The British Provinces were to be divided into groups. There were three major groups and a province could opt out of any group and join another by a majority of votes.
• It proposed the setting up of a Constituent Assembly to frame the Constitution of India. It was to consist of 389 members. The members were to be elected by the Provincial legislative Assemblies.


5. Discuss any four clauses of the Indian Independence Act.
Solution: Four clauses of the Indian Independence Act:

• The Independence Act laid down that the two separate dominions of India and Pakistan would be created. Pakistan was to comprise of NWFP, Sind, Baluchistan, west Punjab and East Bengal. The Boundary commission was to be established to demarcate the exact boundary between the nations.
• Till the framing of the new Constitutions, both dominions would be governed in accordance with the Act of 1935.
• The Princely States would become independent of the British rule and they were free to join either India or Pakistan.
• Provisions were made to divide the Indian army and other assets and liabilities between the two dominions.



Chapter 10: The First World War


1. Name the two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I.
Solution: Two rival blocs formed in Europe before World War I were the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente.

2. Why did the USA enter into the First World War?
Solution: The USA entered into the war for the following reasons:

• In 1915, the German U Boats sunk a British passenger ship called ‘Lusitania’. Among 1153 passengers who were killed. 128 were Americans. This aroused anti-German feelings in the USA.
• The Allied Powers had raised huge sums of money in the USA to pay for the war goods and materials. Thus, the USA feared that if Allied Powers lost the war, she would not be able to recover the money. Moreover, Germany would also become a possible rival of the USA. Thus, USA declared war on Germany on 6 April, 1917.


3. Mention any two territorial arrangements made after the First World War.
Solution: Two territorial arrangements made after the First World War:

• The rule of the Ottoman Empire came to an end in Italy. Austria and Hungary became two separate states.
• Many independent states emerged during the War. Some of these were Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Yugoslavia.


4. Why was the League of Nations formed? Explain any two objectives of the league.
Solution: The League of Nations was created after the end of the First World War. It was created as a world organisation to prevent any future wars. Two objectives of the League were:

• All nations were prohibited from entering into any secret treaties and alliances.
• Nations should solve disputes among each other by referring the disputes to the League.


5. Discuss any four causes of the First World War.
Solution: Four causes of the First World War:

• Aggressive nationalism means to love one’s country to such an extent that it results into the hatred of other countries. Militant nationalism was the consequence of the aggressive nationalism which included the building of huge army and appointing of powerful class of military and naval officers. For example, France wanted the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine back from Germany and Serbia wanted all the Balkan states to unite. This created tensions among the other nations.
• Race for Armaments: Due to aggressive nationalism and on the name of self defense almost every European nation began to pile arms and ammunitions.
• Division of Europe Into two Hostile Camps: In order to secure their interests, nations entered into various alliances. Germany formed an alliance with Austria and Hungary which was later joined by Italy in 1882. The alliance came to be known as the Triple Alliance. France, England and Russia formed Triple Entente in 1907 to counter the effects of the formation of the Triple Alliance. It was later joined by Japan. Formation of these alliances divided Europe into two hostile camps.
• Murder of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Immediate Cause): Archduke Francis Ferdinand was the heir to the throne of Austria and Hungary. He was assassinated at the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo on 28 June, 1914. This finally led to the beginning of the First World War.

Chapter 11: Rise of Dictatorships


1. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

a. Identify the leader. How did his personality help him to emerge as a popular leader in his country?

Solution: The person in picture is Adolf Hitler. One of the reasons for his emergence as a popular leader was his charismatic personality:

• Hitler had a charismatic personality. He was an excellent orator who made people believe through his speeches that only he can work for the upliftment of Germany.
• He devised a new style of politics. Massive rallies and public meetings were held by the Nazis to display the strength of the party. Nazi propaganda also skillfully projected Hitler as a messiah who could deliver people from their distress. He captured the imagination of the Germans.


b. Mention any three factors that contributed to the rise of Nazism in Germany.
Solution: Three factors leading to the rise of Nazism in Germany:

• Germany was defeated in the First World War and was forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Several harsh terms were imposed on Germany by the victorious nations. Her overseas colonies were seized by the Allied powers, she had to pay a huge war indemnity of 33 billion dollars, Rhine area was demilitarised and many of her mineral territories were captured.
• Communists had organised themselves in Germany and they had succeeded in capturing many seats in the Reichstag. Hitler criticised the growing influence of communism and asked the Germans to vote for him as Nazis could alone check the rising tide of communism.
• The economic conditions of Germany deteriorated after her defeat in the First World War. Her industrial and agricultural production declined. Many countries raised tariffs on the German manufactured goods and the number of unemployed youth increased.


2. Explain four factors that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy.
Solution: Four factors that led to the rise of Fascism in Italy

• Italy had joined the Allies in the First World War to gain the German and Turkish territories. However, she was not able to gain any Turkish and German territories. She could only get southern Tyrol and Trentino and few coastal regions of Dalmatia. Thus, there was discontentment in Italy after the end of the First World War.
• Italy suffered heavy economic losses after the end of the war. Trade, commerce and industries were ruined and there was large scale unemployment. There was also the shortage of food grains.
• After democracy was established in Italy in 1919, no one single party was able to majority in the elections. This created political instability as six coalition governments were formed between 1919 and 1922. There was no mutual consensus among the parties on economic policies. The government was not able to deal with rising unemployment, strikes and frequent riots.
• There was the rise in class conflicts in the interwar period. The common people opposed the control of resources in the hands of aristocracies and rich section of the society.


3. Bring out three similarities between the Nazi and the fascist ideologies.
Solution: Three similarities between the Nazi and the fascist ideologies:

• Both- Fascism and Nazism believed in the existence of a totalitarian state
• To oppose democracy and communism
• To uphold the concept of One Party and One Leader.



Chapter 12: The Second World War


1. Give two reasons for the failure of the League of Nations.  
Solution: Two reasons for the failure of the League were:

• The League followed the policy of appeasement. No action was taken when Italy annexed Ethiopia (1936) and Japan captured Manchuria (1920).
• The members of the League had their own differences and were not interested in maintaining the principle of collective responsibility.


2. Why did Hitler invade Poland?
Solution: Hitler invaded Poland because of the following reasons:

• The treaty of Versailles divided Germany into two parts. A part of German land route to Poland and the Port of Danzing were conceded to Poland. Germany wanted to regain her lost territories.
• Germany accused Poland of committing atrocities against German nationals in Poland.


3. What made Japan surrender to the Allies in 1945?
Solution: 


4. Discuss any four causes of the Second World War.
Solution: Four causes of the Second World War:

• Germany was defeated in the First World War and was forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Several harsh terms were imposed on Germany by the victorious nations. Her overseas colonies were seized by the Allied powers, she had to pay a huge war indemnity of 33 billion dollars, Rhine area was demilitarised and many of her mineral territories were captured.
• There was the rise of Fascism and Nazism in Italy and Germany respectively. Both believed in the existence of totalitarian state and opposed democracy. While Italy under Mussolini aimed at reviving the lost glory of the old Roman Empire, Germany wanted to re-establish the prestige of Germany in the international field. This could be done only by fighting wars. The Second World War thus became inevitable.
• Britain and France also wanted to check the growth of communism. They feared that Germany might become a communist power. Thus they took no action when Germany millitarised Rhineland and captured Austria and Czechoslovakia.
• The League of Nations was created after the First World War to prevent future wars. However, the policy of appeasement followed by Britain and France was one of the reasons for the outbreak of the Second World War.


5. What is meant by the term ‘Cold War’? Why did it originate?
Solution: Cold War refers to the war of ideologies that occurred after the Second World War between USA and USSR. While USA was following capitalist model of economy, Soviet Union was following communism. This resulted in ideological differences between both the countries. Though both countries did not engage in actual fight with each other, there were uneasy political tensions between the two states. Both countries followed policies to strengthen themselves and to weaken the other. This period of uneasy tension and political instability paved way to the Cold War.

6. Discuss any three consequences of the Second World War. 
Solution: 
Three consequences of the Second World War:

• The axis powers- Germany, Italy and Japan were defeated in the war. Germany was divided into two zones- West Germany and East Germany. West Germany was administered by Britain, France and the USA with its capital at Bonn. It followed capitalism.

• The United Nations organisation was formed in 1945 to maintain international peace and security and to prevent the occurrence of any future wars. 

• After the Second World War, many countries became independent. Some countries which became independent after the war were India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, China, Ghana etc.

Chapter 13: United Nations


1. Mention any two objectives of the United Nations.
Solution: Two objectives of the United Nations

• To maintain international peace and security.
• To develop friendly relations among nations


2. Discuss any two functions of the General Assembly.
Solution: Two functions of the General Assembly

• It makes recommendations on the principles of cooperation while maintaining peace and security.
• It discusses any question related to international peace and security


3. What is the composition of the Security Council?
Solution: Security Council is an executive body of the United Nations. It consists of 15 members. It has five permanent members- China, France, Russia, Britain and the United States of America. Other ten non-permanent members consists of 5 members from Afro Asian countries, 2 members from Latin American countries, 2 members from West European and other countries and 1 member from East European countries.

4. Discus any three powers and functions of the International Court of Justice.
Solution: Three powers and functions of the International Court of Justice:

• The Court decides cases in accordance with international treaties and conventions in force, international customs etc.
• It decides disputes related to the interpretation of international laws
• It decides cases related to the reparation which are to be made for breaching any international obligations.


Chapter 14: Major Agencies of the United Nations


1. Mention the contributions of UNESCO in the field of education.
Solution: The contributions of UNESCO in the field of education:

• To work for eradication of illiteracy by encouraging distance education and open school systems.
• To stress upon the education of women and girls and to finance the education of disabled children.


2. Name any three functions of the WHO.
Solution: Three functions of the WHO

• It helps countries to improve their health system by building infrastructure like manpower and institutions.
• It gives important drugs needed for medical care. The WHO launched a programme to immunize children against six major diseases-measles, diphtheria, tetanus, tuberculosis, polio and whooping cough.
• It promotes research to cure and prevent diseases.


3. Discuss any three functions of the UNICEF.
Solution: Three functions of the UNICEF

• It protects children who struggle for survival, have health concerns and looks after their well-being.
• It provides services in primary health care, nutrition, basic education and sanitation in the developing countries.
• It also provides funds for training health and sanitation workers, teachers and nutritionists. It provides technical supplies and stationary material related to education like paper, text books etc.


Chapter 15: Non-Aligned Movement


1. What was Non Alignment Movement? 
Solution: Non-alignment was an international policy in which several Asian and African nations refused to align themselves with the former USSR (leading the socialist Bloc) and USA (leading the capitalist bloc). These countries aimed at promoting international peace, harmony and cooperation.

2. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:

 

a. Identify the three prominent leaders in the above picture. They were the founders of which Movement? 
Solution: The leaders in the above picture are Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, J.B. Tito of Yugoslavia and J.L. Nehru of India. They founded the Non Alignment Movement.

b. Mention any two aims and objectives of the movement. 
Solution: Two aims and objectives of the movement were:

• Not to join any power bloc or any military alliance.
• To oppose colonialism, imperialism and racial discrimination


c. Briefly discuss the role of Jawaharlal Nehru in this movement. 
Solution: The role of Jawaharlal Nehru in the Non Alignment Movement:

• Jawaharlal Nehru realised that one of the greatest dangers of India and other newly independent countries lie in joining any of the two power blocs. He advocated all the countries to stay away from the power blocs.
• Nehru with his leadership skills and far sightedness convinced the Asian and African nations to initiate a movement against the division of the world into two powerful blocs.
• He along with Tito of Yugoslavia, Nasser of Egypt, Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam and Kwama Nkrumah of Ghana participated in the Bandung Conference where NAM was given a final shape.
• Nehru is considered as the greatest spokesman for neutrality of Asian and African states in the era of Cold War.
• Nehru opposed the formation of military alliances as these were likely to produce race for armaments.


Civics

Chapter 1: The Union Parliament


1. What is meant by the residuary Powers of the Parliament?
Solution: Residuary powers of the Parliament means that the Parliament has the power to make laws on any matters not enumerated in State List or Concurrent List.


2. How many members are nominated by the President in the Lok Sabha? Which community do these members represent?
Solution: The President can nominate 2 members in the Lok Sabha. These members belong to the Anglo-Indian community.

3. What is the required quorum to hold the meetings of the Lok Sabha?
Solution: The quorum to constitute a meeting of the Lok Sabha is one-tenth of the total strength of the house or 55 members.


4. State the minimum number of times the Lok Sabha must meet in a year.
Solution: The Lok Sabha should meet at least two times in a year.

5. Who is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha?
Solution: The Vice-President is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha.


6. Who presides over the joint session of the two Houses of Parliament?
Solution: The speaker presides over the joint session of the two Houses of Parliament.

7. How is the speaker of the Lok Sabha elected? State two disciplinary functions of the speaker.
Solution: The speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the House. He/she is elected from among the members of the parliament after the General Elections. Two disciplinary functions of the speaker are:

• The speaker maintains order in the House. He can suspend the member or in case of serious disorder may adjourn the House.
• In case of indecent words used by the members, Speaker may order not to use such words in the future.


8. Explain three ways in which legislature exercises control over the Executive?
Solution: Three ways in which legislature exercises control over the Executive:

• The Parliament exercises control over the Parliament by posing questions to ministers related to public opinion in Question hour. By asking questions, members can draw the attention of the House and people towards unjust policies of the Government.
• The parliament can pass a Motion of No-Confidence against the Government. If such a Motion is passed then the government has to resign.
• Adjournment Motions can be passed on certain occasions when a mishap takes place like railway accident, killing of people during riots etc. Through this Motion, the Parliament draws the attention of the people towards the acts of omission and commission.


9. Mention three Special powers of Rajya Sabha that is not usually enjoyed by the other House.
Solution: Three Special powers of Rajya Sabha that is not usually enjoyed by the Lok Sabha:

• Lok Sabha cannot make laws on the subjects included in the State List. Only if Rajya Sabha pass a resolution by two third majorities of the House, parliament can make laws on State List.
• If the Rajya Sabha demands that new All India services should be made in national interests, Parliament may create new services.
• If the Lok Sabha is dissolved before or after the declaration of the national emergency, Rajya Sabha plays the role of the Lok Sabha.


10. Mention any two judicial and two electoral powers of the Indian Parliament.
Solution: Two judicial powers of the Indian Parliament:

• The Parliament can impeach the President on the charges of grave misconduct, violation of Constitution etc. If the charges are framed against the President and are passed by two third majorities of both Houses, the President may be removed from his office.
• The Parliament can remove the judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, the Chief Election Commissioner and the Comptroller and Auditor general of India if they are found to be violating any provision of the Constitution.
Two electoral powers:
• The Parliament with the State Legislatures elects the President of the country.
• It also elects the Vice President of India.


Chapter 2: The President and the Vice President


1. Name one condition under which the President can use his discretionary power to appoint the Prime Minister?
Solution: The President can appoint the Prime Minister when there is a hung Parliament where no single party gets majority in the Lok Sabha.

2. Name the official procedure by which the President can be removed?
Solution: The official procedure by which the President can be removed is the impeachment process.

3. Mention one important occasion when the president addresses a Joint session of Parliament.
Solution: The President addresses both Houses of the Parliament for the first session held after the General Elections to the Lok Sabha and at the beginning of the first session of each year.

4. Mention one discretionary power of the President.
Solution: One discretionary power of the President: When the ruling party loses majority in the Lok Sabha, the President may or may not dissolve the House on the recommendations of the Prime Minister. The former may ask the leader of the other party to prove their majority on the floor of the House.

5. State two qualifications required to become the Vice-President of the country.
Solution: Two qualifications required to become the Vice-President of the country:

• The person should be a citizen of India
• He should have completed thirty five years of age.


6. Mention any two judicial powers of the President.
Solution: Two judicial powers of the President:

• The President is not answerable before any Court of Law for the exercise of powers and duties in his office.
• The President has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respite or commute the sentence of any person convicted for an offence


7. How is the President of India elected?
Solution: The election of the President is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by the means of single transferable vote.

8. Explain three types of emergencies that President is empowered to proclaim.
Solution: Three types of emergencies that President is empowered to proclaim:

National Emergency: If there is danger to the peace and security of the nation due to foreign aggression, civil war or an insurgency.
Breakdown of the Constitutional Machinery: Emergency can be proclaimed in the state if the Constitutional machinery of the state breaks down.
Financial Emergency: If the financial stability or the credit of the country is threatened.


9. Explain briefly any four ‘Executive Powers’ of the President.
Solution: Four ‘Executive Powers’ of the President:

• The President is the head of the Indian Union. All executive orders are issued by the Prime Minister and his cabinet on the name of the President.
All key appointments are made on the name of the President on the advice of Prime Minster and his cabinet.
• The President’s rule is imposed over states if there is a breakdown of the state machinery or if no party is able to prove its majority on the floor of the House.
• The administration of the Union Territories and the border Areas is the responsibility of the President.


10. Discuss any three functions of the Vice-President.
Solution: Three functions of the Vice-President:

• The vice President is the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. He may suspend and adjourn the business of the House in case of grave disorder.
• He regulates the debates and the proceedings of the Rajya Sabha.
• The Vice President can take over the position of the President in case of the death, resignation and impeachment of the President until a new election.


Chapter 3: Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers


1. What is the meaning of the Collective responsibility of the Cabinet?
Solution: The Council of Ministers, as a single body, has a responsibility towards the Lok Sabha for the Government’s general conduct of affairs. If any minister loses the confidence of the Lok Sabha, all the ministers of the government collectively have to resign from the office. This is known as Collective responsibility.

2. Under what circumstances can a non-member of the Parliament be made a minister?
Solution: Normally, it is only the members of Parliament who are made Ministers. However, in case a non-member has to be made a Minister, he must be elected or nominated to the Parliament within six months from the date of his appointment. If he fails to do so, he will have to resign from the post of Minister.

3. Who appoints the Prime Minister and the cabinet?
Solution: The President appoints the Prime Minister and the cabinet.

4. Discuss any two administrative functions of the Cabinet.
Solution: Two administrative functions of the Cabinet:

• The cabinet formulates and decides the domestic and international policies of the Government. It takes decisions on important matters like defence, finances, foreign affairs etc. Individual ministers have to consult the cabinet on all important matters.
• After a decision is taken by the Cabinet ministers, it is conveyed to the Ministers of State and the Deputy Ministers who implement the policies with the help of the bureaucracy.


5. Explain three differences between the Cabinet and the Council of ministers.
Solution: Differences between the Cabinet and the Council of ministers:

Cabinet

Council of Ministers

It is a smaller group consisting of senior members that hold important portfolios.

They consist of all categories of ministers – Cabinet ministers, Ministers of State and Deputy Ministers.

They are the most trusted and consulted colleagues of the Prime Minister. He asks their advice on important matters. The decisions of the Cabinet are binding on all the ministers.

The Prime Minister may or may not consult these ministers for making important decisions.

They are a small organised group of senior ministers who meet as frequently as possible to shape national policies and transact government business. 

They meet rarely as a whole, in day-to-day working of the government.


6. State any two powers of the Prime Minister in relation to the President.
Solution: Two powers of the Prime Minister in relation to the President:

• The President acts on the advice of the Prime Minister. Thus, while President is the nominal head, the President is the real head.
• The President summons and prorogues the Parliament on the advice of the President.


7. Mention any four legislative powers of the Cabinet.
Solution: Four legislative powers of the Cabinet:

• Most of the bills are introduced by the Cabinet in the Parliament. The bills introduced by the Cabinet are known as the Official bills. The latter is given priority over the Private bills.
• The Ministers along with the secretaries of the department answer various questions asked to them by the members of the Lok Sabha.
• The Cabinet Ministers play an important role in making amendments to the Constitution.
• The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs, a cabinet ministry decides about the summoning of the Parliament. The parliament is summoned on the name of the President.


8. Discuss any four powers of the Prime Minister.
Solution: Four powers of the Prime Minister:

• The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet.
• The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet. He presides over the meetings of the Cabinet.
• He advises the President on various appointments made on the posts of the Judges of the Supreme Court, the Governors and the ambassadors.
• He defends the Government in the Parliament. Whenever his minister is questioned, he defends him.


Chapter 4: The Supreme Court


1. What is the composition of the Supreme Court of India?
Solution: The Supreme Court of India consists of the Chief Justice of India and not more than 25 other judges.

2. What is meant by a 'Single Integrated Judicial System' as provided in the Indian Constitution?
Solution: The single integrated judiciary system means that the Supreme Court is the head of the Indian judiciary and supervises the functions of the lower courts. Single civil and criminal system of laws operates all over the country. By the way of appeal, cases from the High Court may be taken to the Supreme Court.

3. What is the revisory jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
Solution: The Supreme Court has the power to review any judgment with a view to undo any erroneous decision given by it. It is important because the Supreme Court is also a court of record and its decisions may be referred by other courts while giving judgments.

4. In what way is the Supreme Court guardian of the fundamental rights?
Solution: Supreme Court is the guardian of the fundamental rights because if the government or any other institution takes away the fundamental rights of a citizen, he/she can directly file a case in the Supreme Court.

5. What are the qualifications of the Judges of the Supreme Court?
Solution: Qualifications of the Judges of the Supreme Court:

• He should be a citizen of India.
• He should been a judge of High Court for five years or of two and more such courts in succession.
• He should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President


6. What do we mean when we refer to the Supreme Court as the ‘Court of Record’?
Solution: The Supreme Court as the ‘Court of Record’ because the decisions of the Supreme Court are recorded for evidence and testimony. The judgments given by the Supreme Court are preserved and can be produced as evidence in any court.

7. Why is judiciary independent of the Executive?
Solution: Judiciary has been made independent of the Executive because an independent judiciary is an essential requirement of a federal governance. It has been made independent so that the executive and legislature may not influence the work of the judiciary. An impartial judiciary is also essential for ensuring human rights and protecting democracy.

8. Discuss the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
Solution: Appellate jurisdiction refers to the power of a court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts. The appellate jurisdiction extends to constitutional, civil and criminal cases.

Constitutional Cases: All matters under the High Court which involves the interpretation of the Constitution can be brought before the Supreme Court.
Civil Cases: Appeals can be made to Supreme Court if the High Court certifies that:
• The case involves an important question of law of general importance
• The case needs to be decided by the Supreme Court.
• If the Supreme Court refuses to give certificate, the Supreme Court can grant special leave to appeal in certain cases.
Criminal Cases: Two types of appeals in criminal cases can be referred to the Supreme Court if cases with or without the certificate lie before the High Court.


Chapter 5: The High Court and the Subordinate Courts 


1. What is appellate jurisdiction of the High Court?
Solution: The appellate jurisdiction of the High Court means that it can hear appeals against the decisions of the District courts in civil and criminal matters.

2. State one advantage of the Lok Adalat.
Solution: One advantage of the Lok Adalat is that it gives legal help and quick justice to those people who are not able to engage lawyers or bear cost of legal proceedings.

3. Name the highest civil court in a district.
Solution: The Court of the District Judge is the highest civil court of the district.

4. State one other qualification required to become a Judge of the High Court apart from Indian citizenship.
Solution: A qualification required to become a Judge of the High Court is that he should have held a judicial office for at least ten years or he has been an advocate of the High Court for at least ten years.

5. How is the High Court a ‘Court of Record’?
Solution: The High Court is the court of record as the decisions given by it are preserved as records for the future reference of the lower courts. The High Court can also punish a person for the contempt of the court.

6. State one point of distinction between a District Judge and a sessions Judge.
Solution: While the district judge decides the civil cases, a Sessions judge decides the criminal cases.

7. Name the writs that the High Courts are empowered to issue.
Solution: The writs that the High Courts are empowered to issue are Habeas Corpus, Mandamus, Prohibition, Quo Warranto and Certiorari. 

8. Discuss the power of the judicial review of the High Courts.
Solution: The High Courts have the power of judicial review. It means that they can declare any laws passed by the legislature as null and void if it violates any provision of the Constitution.

9. Discuss the original jurisdiction of the High Court.
Solution: Original jurisdiction refers to the power of hearing and deciding the cases at the first instance. The High Court has the original jurisdiction in the following cases:

• Cases which involves matters relating to the State revenues and its collection.
• Cases dealing with will, divorce, marriages, company laws and contempt of court.
• The High Court can interpret the Constitution. This is known as the power of judicial review.
• Like the Supreme Court, it can hear cases in which fundamental rights have been violated.
• Under original jurisdiction, the high Court can hear cases which deal with election petitions challenging the election of the members of the Parliament or the state Legislative Assembly.


10. What is revisory jurisdiction of the High court?
Solution: Revisory Jurisdiction:

The High Court can ask for the record of a case which has been decided by any subordinate court. This happens when the High Court feels that the subordinate court has decided cases which do not come under its jurisdiction.
Thus High Court can review the decisions passed by the lower courts. It is called revisory jurisdiction.
This jurisdiction is applicable in those cases where it is evident that injustice has been done to the accused, principles of natural justice have been violated and a gross error has been made while delivering justice.