FRANK Solutions for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts

Revise Frank Solutions for ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 3 Study of Acids, Bases and Salts at TopperLearning. In this Chemistry chapter, study about volatile acids, weak dibasic acids, strong monobasic acids, alkali, base and other topics. Also, learn the various methods to prepare salts such as zinc sulphate, sodium sulphate etc.

In this chapter, learn the right chemical equations to explain reactions like conversion of hydrogen chloride to anhydrous iron (III) chloride. For more Chemistry practice, explore our ICSE Class 10 Chemistry Selina Solutions and other revision resources.

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Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 70

Question 1
Define an acid.
Solution 1
Question 2
Give the name and formula of two
(a) Strong monobasic acids
(b) Weak dibasic acids
(c) Non-volatile acids
(d) Volatile acids
Solution 2
(a) (i) Hydrogen chloride HCl
(ii) Nitric acid HNO3
(b) (i) Carbonic acid H2CO3
(ii) Oxalic acid (COOH)2
(c) (i) Sulphuric acid H2SO4
(ii) Hydrogen chloride HCl
(d) (i) Carbonic acid H2CO3
(ii) Acetic acid
Question 3
(a) Define a base.
(b) Explain, all alkalis are bases but all bases are not alkalis.
Solution 3
Question 4

(a) Define pH.
(b) State three applications of pH scale.

Solution 4

(a) The pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydronium ion concentration present in the solution.
       pH = -log10 [H3O+]
(b) The three applications of pH scale are:

It is used to determine the acidic or basic nature of the solution.
It is used to determine hydronium ion concentration present in the solution.
It is used to find out neutrality of the solution.

Question 5
(a) Define an indicator.
(b) Explain, why a universal indicator is preferred to acid-base indicators.
Solution 5
Question 6
What is the difference between:
(a) An alkali and a base?
(b) An alkali and a metal hydroxide?
Solution 6
Question 7
Name the ions furnished by
(a) Bases in solution
(b) a weak alkali
(c) an acid
Solution 7
(a) Base in solution furnishes the ions:
Hydroxide ion/ oxide ion and a metallic ion.
(b) A weak alkali furnishes the ions:
Hydroxide ion and metallic ion and molecules of weak alkali./
(c) An acid in a solution furnishes the ions:
Hydronium / Hydrogen ion and a negative ion.
Question 8
Explain hydronium ion. Write the ionization of sulphuric acid showing the formation of hydronium ion.
Solution 8
Question 9
Give one example in each case:
(a) Basic oxide which is soluble in water
(b) A hydroxide which is highly soluble in water.
(c) A basic oxide which is insoluble in water.
(d) A hydroxide which is insoluble in water.
(e) A weak mineral acid.
(f) A base which is not an alkali.
(g) An oxide which is a base.
(h) A hydrogen containing compound which is not an acid.
Solution 9
(a) CaO
(b) NaOH
(c) CuO
(d) Cu[(OH)2]
(e) H2CO3
(f) Ferric hydroxide [Fe (OH)3].
(g) CuO
(h) NH3

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 71

Question 10
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is not an acid but its aqueous solution is a strong acid. Explain.
Solution 10
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride is not an acid but its aqueous solution is a strong acid because anhydrous means without water and we know that the property of acidity is shown by a substance only when it is dissolved in water or its aqueous solution is prepared.
Question 11

Carbonic acid gives an acid salt but hydrochloric acid does not. Explain.

Solution 11

Question 12

What do you understand by the strength of an acid? On what factors does the strength of an acid depend?

Solution 12

Strength of an acid measures the ease with which the acid can ionize to produce hydrogen or hydronium ions when dissolved in water. Those acids which can easily ionize to form hydrogen ions are called strong acids while those which can partially ionize to form hydrogen ions are called weak acids.
Strength of an acid depends upon many factors such as:

Molecular structure of the acid

The temperature

Properties of the solvent

Question 13
How is an acid prepared from a non metal and a base from a metal? Give equation.
Solution 13
Question 14
Two solutions A and B have pH values of 2 and 9 respectively which one of these two will give a pink colour with phenolphthalein indicator?
Solution 14
Solution B with pH value 9 will give pink colour with phenolphthalein.
Concept Insight:  Bases give pink colour with phenolphthalein because a base will abstract two protons from phenolphthalein and the resulting phenolphthalein ion provides pink colour to the solution.
Question 15
Name two indicators which can identify the presence of an acid?
Solution 15
Two indicators for identification of acid are methyl red and Thymol blue.
Question 16
State how would you prepare copper (II) oxide from
(a) Copper nitrate
(b) copper carbonate
(c) copper sulphate
Solution 16
Question 17
Give four examples of preparation of acids by synthesis.
Solution 17
Question 18
(a) Define an acid salt and a normal salt.
(b) How many salts can be obtained from ortho phosphoric acid? Is there any difference in the salts formed by the acid?
Solution 18

Question 19
Give equations to prepare the following as directed:
(a) MgCO3 from MgCl2
(b) PbCO3 from Pb(NO3)
(c) NaHCO3 from Na2CO3
Solution 19
Question 20
Define the following terms:
(i) Efflorescence.
(ii) Hygroscopy.
(iii) Water of crystallization.
Solution 20
(i) Efflorescence: It is the phenomenon by which hydrated salts on exposure to dry air, lose their water of crystallization and crumble to powder.
(ii) Hygroscopy: It is the phenomenon by which substances absorb moisture from air, but only sufficiently so as to become wet.
(iii) Water of crystallization: It is the fixed amount of water that is present in a crystal as an integral part of its constitution. Hydrated salts are salts having water of crystallisation.
Question 21
What is deliquescence? What name is given to the compounds exhibiting such property?
Solution 21
Deliquescence is the phenomenon by which certain salts absorb moisture from air, lose their water of crystallization and dissolve in it to form a saturated solution.
The substances which exhibit deliquescence are called deliquescent.
For example Caustic soda NaOH, Caustic potash KOH.
Question 22
Explain salt hydrolysis. Name two salts which are (a) acidic (b) basic (c) neutral, when dissolved in water.
Solution 22
Question 23
Solution 23
Question 24
(a) Why common salt gets wet during rainy season?
(b) Give four substances which contain water of crystallization and write their common name.
Solution 24
(a) Common salt gets wet during rainy season because the commercially available salt contains impurities, like magnesium chloride, which are deliquescent substances. These absorb moisture from atmosphere and make the table salt wet.
(b) (i) Na2CO3.10H2O = Washing soda
(ii) MgSO4.7H2O = Epsom salt
(iii) CuSO4.5H2O = Blue vitriol
(iv) ZnSO4.7H2O = White vitriol
Question 25

Write the reactions of SO2 and oxides of nitrogen which leads to acid rain formation.

Solution 25

Reactions of SO2:

Reactions of oxides of nitrogen:

Question 26

Fill in the blanks

(a) The word acid comes from latin word acidus meaning _________

(b) Vinegar is the source of ________ acid.

(c) Magnesia is used in making __________.

(d) pH scale was introduced by _________ in 1909.

(e) ___________ is the phenomenon by which hydrated salts on exposure to dry air, lose their water of crystallization and crumble to powder.

Solution 26

(a) The word acid comes from the latin word acidus meaning 'sour'.

(b) Vinegar is the source of acetic acid.

(c) Magnesia is used in making refractory bricks.

(d) pH scale was introduced by Sorencen in 1909.

(e) Efflorescence is the phenomenon by which hydrated salts on exposure to dry air lose their water of crystallisation and crumble to powder.

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 72

Question 27

Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

(i) Which of them occurs in solid state?

(a) Citric acid

(b) Formic acid

(c) Acetic acid

(d) Hydrochloric acid

 

(ii) Benzoic acid is used for/in/as

(a) Baking powder

(b) Food preservative

(c) Fertilizers

(d) Explosives

 

(iii) Which colour with the universal indicator indicates highly alkaline solution?

(a) Dark red

(b) Yellow

(c) Green

(d) Violet

(iv) Which one is the acidic salt?

(a) KNO3

(b) Sodium acetate

(c) Calcium chloride

(d) Ammonium acetate

Solution 27

(i) Citric acid

(ii) Food preservative

(iii) Violet

(iv) Calcium chloride

Question 1996-1
A solution has a pH of 7. Explain, how you would:
(i) Increase its pH
(ii) Decrease its pH
If a solution changes the color of litmus from red to blue, what can you say about its pH?
Solution 1996-1
(i) pH of a solution having pH 7 can be increased by adding a base to it such as NaOH.
(ii) pH can be decreased by adding an acid such as HCl to it.
If a solution changes colour of litmus from red to blue, it shows that its pH is above 7.
Question 1996-2
What can you say about the pH of a solution that liberates carbon dioxide from sodium carbonate?
Solution 1996-2
Question 1996-3
From the list of the substances given, name the substances which you would use to prepare each of the following salts:
List of substances: Copper, lead, sodium, zinc, copper oxide, lead carbonate, sodium carbonate solution, dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute nitric acid and dilute sulphuric acid.
Salts: (a) zinc sulphate (b) copper sulphate (c) sodium sulphate (d) lead sulphate.
Solution 1996-3
(a) Zinc sulphate = Zinc and dilute sulphuric acid
(b) Copper sulphate = Copper oxide and dilute sulphuric acid
(c) Sodium sulphate = Sodium carbonate solution and dilute sulphuric acid
(d) Lead sulphate = Lead carbonate and dilute sulphuric acid
Question 1997-1
Define the meaning of the term 'acid salt'.
Solution 1997-1
The term acid salt means the salt formed by partial replacement of the hydrogens present in the acid by metallic or ammonium ions.
For example: NaHCO3
Question 1997-2
(i) What is the purpose of the pH scale?
(ii) What is the pH of pure water?
(iii) A is a soluble acidic oxide; B is a soluble base. Compared to the pH of pure water, what is the pH of (a) a solution of A (b) a solution of B.
Solution 1997-2
(i) pH scale is used to express the acidic or basic nature of solution.
(ii) pH of pure water is 7 since it does not have any impurities.
(iii) (a) A soluble oxide of A will have pH less than the pH of pure water i.e. below 7.
(b) A solution of 'B' will have more pH than pure water i.e. above 7.
Question 1997-3
Taking sodium carbonate as an example, give the meaning of the following terms:
(i) Water of crystallization.
(ii) Anhydrous.
Solution 1997-3
(i) Water of crystallization: It is the fixed amount of water that is present in a crystal as an integral pat of its constitution. Compounds having water of crystallization are called hydrous salts.
For example: Sodium carbonate Na2CO3 has 10 molecules of water present as water of crystallization Na2CO3.10H2O
(ii) Anhydrous: Hydrous salt on heating lose their water of crystallization, such salts are then called anhydrous.
For example: Na2CO3.10H2O on losing 10 molecules of water forms Na2CO3.
Question 1997-4
Outline the steps required to convert hydrogen chloride to anhydrous iron (III) chloride. Write the equations for the reactions.
Solution 1997-4

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 73

Question 1998-1

Answer the following questions below, relating your answers only to salts in the following list:
Sodium chloride, anhydrous calcium chloride, copper sulphate-5-water.
(i) What is the name given to the water in the compound copper sulphate-5-water?
(ii) If copper sulphate-5-water is heated, the water is driven off leaving anhydrous copper sulphate. What is the colour of anhydrous copper sulphate?
(iii) By what means, other than heating, you can dehydrate copper sulphate-5-water and obtain anhydrous copper sulphate?
(iv) Which one of the salts in the given list is deliquescent?

Solution 1998-1

(i) Water of cystallization.
(ii) White.
(iii) Efflorescence.
(iv) Sodium chloride.

Question 1998-2

What is meant by the term weak acid?

Solution 1998-2

Those acids which ionize partially in aqueous solution and thus they contain ions as well as molecules of the acid. Organic acid such as CH3COOH, is a weak acid.

Question 1998-3
Solution P has a pH of 13, solution Q has a pH of 6, and a solution R has a pH of 2. Which solution:
(a) Will liberate ammonia from ammonium sulphate on heating?
(b) Is a strong acid.
(c) Contains molecules as well as ions?
Solution 1998-3
Question 1998-4
Give the name and formula of the acid salt which gives sodium ions and sulphate ions in solution.
Solution 1998-4
The name and formula of the acid salt which gives sodium ions and sulphate ions in solution is Sodium hydrogen sulphate NaHSO4.
Question 1999-1
(a) Define the following terms:
(i) Acid.
(ii) pH scale.
(iii) Neutralisation.
(b) (i) Outline the steps that would be necessary to convert insoluble lead (II) oxide into insoluble chloride.
(ii) Write the balanced equations for the reaction required to convert insoluble lead (II) oxide into insoluble lead chloride.
(iii) If iron reacts with dilute sulphuric acid, what will be the products?
(iv) A solution of iron (III) chloride has a pH less than 7. Is the solution acidic or alkaline?
Solution 1999-1

Question 2000-1
Solution 2000-1

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 74

Question 2001-1
Solution 2001-1
Question 2002-1
(a) Write the balanced equations for the preparation of the following compounds, starting from iron and using only one other substance:
(i) Iron (II) chloride
(ii) Iron (III) chloride
(iii) Iron (II) sulphate
(iv) Iron (II) sulphide
(b) Write the equations for the laboratory preparation of
(i) sodium sulphate using dilute sulphuric acid.
(ii) lead sulphate using dilute sulphuric acid.
Solution 2002-1
Question 2003-1
Choosing the correct words given in brackets, complete the sentences given below:
(i) An acid is a compound which, when dissolved in water gives ______ ( hydronium / hydroxide) ions as the only ______ (positive/negative) ions.
(ii) A(n) ______ (acid/basic) salt is one in which the hydrogen of an acid has been partially replaced by a ______ (metal/non-metal).
Solution 2003-1
(i) Hydronium, positive.
(ii) Acid, metal.
Question 2003-2
Write equations for the laboratory preparation of the following salts, using sulphuric acid:
(i) Iron (II) sulphate from the iron.
(ii) Copper sulphate from copper.
(iii) Lead sulphate from lead nitrate.
(iv) Sodium sulphate from sodium carbonate.
Solution 2003-2
Question 2004-1
Which of the following methods, (a), (b), (c), (d) or (e) is generally used for preparing the chlorides listed below from (i) to (v). Answer by writing down the chloride and the letter pertaining to the corresponding method. Each letter is to be used only once.
(a) Action of an acid on a metal.
(b) Action of an acid on an oxide or carbonate.
(c) Direct combination.
(d) Neutralization of an alkali by an acid.
(e) Precipitation (double decomposition).
(i) copper(II) chloride.
(ii) iron(III) chloride.
(iii) iron(II) chloride.
(iv) lead (II) chloride.
(v) sodium chloride.
Solution 2004-1
methods for preparation:
(i) Preparation of copper(II) chloride.
Action of an acid on an oxide or carbonate
(ii) Preparation of iron(III) chloride.
 Direct combination
(iii) Preparation of  iron (II) chloride.
Action of an acid on a metal
(iv) Preparation of lead (ii) chloride
Precipitation (double decomposition)
(v) Preparation of sodium chloride
Neutralization of an alkali by an acid.

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 75

Question 2005-1
The preparation of lead sulphate from lead carbonate is a two step process (lead sulphate cannot be prepared by adding dilute sulphuric acid to lead carbonate)
(a) What is the first step that is required to prepare lead sulphate from lead carbonate?
(b) Write the equation for the reaction that will take place when this first step is carried out.
(c) Why is the direct addition of dilute sulphuric acid to lead carbonate an impractical method of preparing lead sulphate?
Solution 2005-1
Question 2005-2
Fill in the blanks with suitable words:
An acid is a compound which when dissolved in water forms hydronium ions as the only ______ ions.
A base is a compound which if soluble in water contains ______ ions. A base reacts with an acid to form ______ and water only. This type of reaction is known as ______.
Solution 2005-2
Positive, hydroxyl, Salt, Neutralization.
Question 2005-3
What is observed when neutral litmus solution is added to sodium hydrogen carbonate solution?
Solution 2005-3
When neutral litmus solution is added to sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, litmus solution turns red
Question 2006-1
Mention the colour changes observed when the following indicators are added to acids:
(a) Alkaline phenolphthalein solution.
(b) Methyl orange solution.
(c) Neutral litmus solution.
Solution 2006-1
(a) From pink to colourless.
(b) From orange to pink.
(c) From colourless to red.
Question 2007-1
From the list given below. Select the word(s) required to correctly complete the blanks (i) to (v) in the following passage:
Ammonia, Ammonium, Carbonate, Carbon dioxide, Hydrogen, Hydronium,
A solution 'X' turns blue litmus red so it must contain (i) ______ ions; another solution 'Y' turns red litmus blue and therefore must contain(ii) ______ ions. When solutions X and Y are mixed together, the products will be a (iii) ______ and ______ (iv) ______. If a piece of magnesium was put into solution X, (v) ______ gas would be evolved.
Solution 2007-1
(i) Hydronium
(ii) Hydroxide
(iii) Salt
(iv) Water
(v) Hydrogen
Question 2007-2

Solution 2007-2

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 76

Question 2008-1
What are the terms defined in (i) and (ii) below?
(i) A salt containing a metal ion surrounded by other ions or molecules.
(ii) A base which is soluble in water.
Solution 2008-1
(i) Complex salt.
(ii) Alkali.
Question 2009-1
Choose the correct answer:
Carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide gas can be distinguished by using:
(a) Moist blue litmus paper.
(b) Lime water
(c) Acidified potassium dichromate paper
(d) None of the above.
Solution 2009-1
Acidified potassium dichromate paper
Question 2009-2
Solution A is a strong acid.
Solution B is a weak acid.
Solution C is a strong alkali.
(i) Which solution contains solute molecules in addition to water molecules?
(ii) Which solution will give a gelatinous white precipitate with zinc sulphate solution? The precipitate disappears when an excess of the solution is added.
(iii) Which solution could be a solution of glacial acetic acid?
(iv) Give an example of a solution which is a weak alkali.
Solution 2009-2
(i) Solution B.
(ii) Solution A.
(iii) Solution B
(iv) Solution of ammonium hydroxide NH4OH is a weak alkali.
Question 2009-3
Solution 2009-3

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 77

Question 2010-1

Select the correct answer from the choices a,b,c and d which are given.

Write only the letter corresponding to the correct answer.

(i) A particular solution contains molecules and ions of the solute so it is a

(a) Weak acid

(b) Strong acid

(c) Strong base

(d) Salt solution

 

(ii) An organic weak acid is

(a) Formic acid

(b) Sulphuric acid

(c) Sulphuric base

(d) Hydrochloric acid

 

(iii) An example of a complex salt is

(a) Zinc sulphate

(b) Solution hydrogen sulphate

(c) Iron(II) ammonium sulphate

(d) Tetramine copper (II) sulphate

Solution 2010-1

(i) A

(ii) A

(iii) D

Question 2010-2

Write the equation for the following reaction:

Magnesium sulphate solution is mixed with barium chloride solution.

Solution 2010-2

Question 2010-3

Give the equation for the preparation of each of the following salts from the starting material given.

(i) Copper sulphate from copper (II) oxide

(ii) Iron (III) Chloride from Iron

(iii) Potassium sulphate from potassium hydroxide solution

(iv) Lead chloride from lead carbonate (two equations)

Solution 2010-3

(i) 

(ii) 

(iii) 

(iv) 

 

 

Question 2010-4

Solution A is a sodium hydroxide solution. Solution B is a weak acid. Solution C is dilute sulphuric acid. Which solution will.

(i) Liberate sulphur dioxide from sodium sulphite

(ii) Give a white precipitate with zinc sulphate solution,

(iii) Contain solute molecules and ions?

Solution 2010-4

(i) C = Dilute sulphuric acid

(ii) A = Sodium hydroxide

(iii) B = Weak acid

Question 2011-1

What happen to the crystals of washing soda when exposed to air? Name the phenomenon exhibited.

Solution 2011-1

When crystals of washing soda are exposed to air, it loses its water of crystallisation and the phenomenon is known as efflorescence.

Question 2011-2

Name the method used for preparation of the following salts from the list given below:

(i) Sodium nitrate

(ii) Iron (III) chloride

(iii) Lead chloride

(iv) Zinc sulphate

(v) Sodium hydrogen sulphate

List :

(a) Simple displacement

(b) Neutralization

(c) Decomposition by acid

(d) Double decomposition

(e) Direct synthesis

Solution 2011-2

(i) (B) Neutralisation

(ii) (E) Direct synthesis

(iii) (D) Double decomposition

(iv) (A) Simple displacement

(v) (C) Decomposition by acid

Question 2013-1

From the list given below, select the word(s) required to correctly complete blanks (i) to (v) in the following passage. The words from the list are to be used only once. Write the answers as (a) (i), (ii) (iii) and so on. Do not copy the passage

Ammonia, ammonium, carbonate, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydronium,hydroxide,precipitate,salt,water

(a) A solution M turns blue litmus red, so it must contain (i) _______ ions; another, solution O turns red litmus blue and hence, must contain (ii)__________ ions

(b) When Solutions M and O are mixed together, the products will be (iii) ________ and (iv) ________

(c) If a piece of magnesium was put into a solution M.(v) _________________Gas would be evolved

Solution 2013-1

(i) Hydronium

(ii) Hydroxide

(iii) Salt

(iv) Water

(v) Hydrogen

Chapter 3 - Study Of Acids, Bases and Salts Exercise 78

Question 2016-1

State what would you observe when :

(a) Washing soda crystals are exposed to the atmosphere.

(b) The salt ferric chloride is exposed to the atmosphere.

Solution 2016-1

(a) When washing soda (Na2CO3.10H2O) is exposed to air, it loses 9 molecules of water to form a monohydrate.

(b) It absorbs moisture from the atmosphere and becomes moist and ultimately dissolves in the absorbed water, forming a saturated solution.

Question 2016-2

Match the salts given in Column I with their method of preparation given in Column II:

Column I

Column II

(i) P(NO3)2 from PbO

(ii) MgCl2 from Mg

(iii) FeCl3 from Fe

(iv) NaNO3 from NaOH

(v) ZnCO3 from ZnSO4

(A) Simple displacement

(B) Titration

(C) Neutralisation

(D) Precipitation

(E) Combination

 

Solution 2016-2

 

Column I

Column II

(i) P(NO3)2 from PbO

(ii) MgCl2 from Mg

(iii) FeCl3 from Fe

(iv) NaNO3 from NaOH

(v) ZnCO3 from ZnSO4

(A) Precipitation

(F) Simple displacement

(B) Combination

(G) Neutralisation

(H) Titration

 

Question 2017-1

Fill in the blank from the choices given in bracket:

(a) When a metallic oxide is dissolved in water, the solution formed has a high concentration of ___________ ions. (H+,H3O+,OH-)

Solution 2017-1

(a) When a metallic oxide is dissolved in water, the solution formed has a high concentration of OH⁻ ions.

Question 2017-2

To increase the pH value of neutral solution, we should add

(a)  An acid

(b) An acid salt

(c) An alkali

(d) A salt

Solution 2017-2

(b) (c) An alkali