FRANK Solutions for Class 10 Chemistry Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 115
(a) Gay-Lussac's law of combining volumes
(b) Avogadro's law
(a) Gay-Lussac's law: It states that 'when gases react, they do so in volumes which bear a simple ratio to one another, and also to the volume of the gaseous product, provided all the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure'.
(b) Avogadro's law : It states that 'Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules'.
(b) Differentiate between 2H and H2.
(b) What is the value of Avogadro's number?
(c) What is the value of molar volume of a gas at STP?
(a) Vapour density.
(b) Molar volume.
(c) Relative atomic mass.
(d) Avogadro's number.
(e) Relative molecular mass.
(b) How does Avogadro's law explain Gay - lussac's law of combining volumes?
Explain the terms:
(a) Gram atom
(b) Gram mole
(a) Gram atom: "The quantity of the element which weighs equal to its gram atomic mass is called one gram atom of that element".
For example: The gram atomic mass of hydrogen is 1g. So, 1g of hydrogen is 1 gram atom of hydrogen.
(b) Gram mole: "A sample of substance with its mass equal to its gram molecular mass is called one gram molecule of this substance or one gram mole".
For example: Gram molecular mass of oxygen is 32 g. So One gram mole of oxygen is 32g.
(a) Potassium chlorate
(b) Sodium acetate
(d) Ammonium sulphate
Molecular formula: "Molecular formula of a compound denotes the actual number of atoms of different elements present in one molecule of the compound".
(b) The empirical formula of C6H12O6 is: CH2O.
(c) The empirical formula of C2H2 is: CH
(d) The empirical formula of CH3COOH is: CH2O.
Give three pieces of information conveyed by the formula H2O.
Three pieces of information conveyed by the formula H2O is that:
It shows that there are 2hydrogen atoms and 1oxygen atoms present in H2O.
The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are present in simplest whole number ratio of 2:1.
It represents one molecule of compound water.
(a) Molecular weight of a gas is twice its ______.
(b) Mass of 22.4 litre of a gas at STP is ______.
(c) One gram atom of an element contains ______ atoms.
(d) One a.m.u. is the mass of ______ atom of C12.
(e) Avogadro's number is equal to ______.
(a) Empirical formula is the same as the molecular formula.
(b) Empirical formula is different from the molecular formula.
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 116
The usefulness of a fertilizer depends upon percentage of nitrogen present in it. Find which of the following is a better fertilizer:
(a) Ammonium nitrate [NH4NO3]
(b) Ammonium phosphate [(NH4)3PO4] (N=14,H=1,O=16,P=31)
(i) 48 g of oxygen.
(ii) 16 g of sulphur dioxide.
(b) Determine the molecular mass of a gas if 5g of it occupy a volume of 4 L at STP.
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 117
(a) The greatest number of molecules.
(b) The least number of molecules.
Justify your answer.
[H = 1, N = 14, O = 16, Mg = 24]
(b) Define or explain the meaning of term 'molar volume'.
[H = 1, C= 12, N= 14, O = 16]
(a) Calculate the empirical formula of the compound having 37.6% sodium, 23.1% silicon and 39.3% oxygen.(Answer correct to two decimal places) (O = 16, Na = 23, Si = 28)
(b) The empirical formula of a compound is C2H5. Its vapour density is 29. Determine the relative molecular mass of the compound and hence its molecular formula.
(a) Calculate the percentage of boron (B) in borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O). [H = 1, B = 11, O = 16, Na = 23] , answer correct to 1 decimal place).
(b) (i) The compound A has the following percentage composition by mass:
C =26.7%, O = 71.1%, H = 2.2%. Determine the empirical formula of A.(Answer to one decimal place) (H=1,C=12,O=16)
(ii) If the relative molecular mass of A is 90, what is the molecular formula of A?
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 118
(b) Each of the two flasks contains 2.0 g of gas at the same temperature and pressure. One flask contains oxygen and the other hydrogen.
(i) Which sample contains the greater number of molecules?
(ii) If the hydrogen sample contains N molecules, how many molecules are present in oxygen sample?
Determine the empirical formula of the compound whose composition by mass is 42% nitrogen, 48% oxygen and 9% hydrogen.[N=14,O=16,H=1]
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 119
According to Gay-Lussac's law:
2 vol. of C2H6 requires= 7 vol. of oxygen
Vol. of C2H6 = 2 vol. = 100 L
Vol. of oxygen required = 7 vol. =350 L
The mass of a given volume of gas compared to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen.
Calculate the percentage of phosphorous in the fertilizer superphosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2. [Ca = 40, H =1, P =31, O = 16] (Correct to 1 decimal place)
Samples of the gases O2, N2, CO2 and CO under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules represented by X. The molecules of Oxygen, occupy V litres and have a mass of 8 g. Under the same conditions of temperature and pressure:
(a) What is the volume occupied by:
(i) X molecules of N2,
(ii) 3X molecules of CO? [C=12,N=14,O=16]
(b) What is the mass of CO2 in g?
(c) In answering the above questions, which law have you used?
Calculate the percentage of platinum in ammonium chloroplatinate (NH4)2PtCl6. [N = 14, H = 1, Pt = 195, Cl =35.5] (Give your answer correct to the nearest whole number)
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 120
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 121
(i) Which sample of gas contains the maximum number of molecules?
(ii) If the temperature and the pressure of gas A are kept constant then what will happen to the volume of A when the number of molecules is doubled?
(iii) If this ratio of gas volumes refers to the reactants and products of a reaction, which gas law is being observed?
(iv) If the volume of A is actually 5.6 dm3 at STP, calculate the number of molecules in the actual volume of D at STP.
(v) Using your answer from (iv), state, the mass of D if the gas is dinitrogen oxide (N2O)
(b) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in aluminium nitride. [Al = 27, N = 14]
(a) Calculate the number of moles and number of molecules present in 1.4 g of ethylene gas. What is the volume occupied by the same amount of ethylene?
(b) What is the vapour density of ethylene? (Avogadro's number = 6x1023; Atomic weight of C = 12, H = 1; Molar volume = 22.4 litres at STP)
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 122
(i) Determine the empirical formula of this compound. [C = 12, Br = 80]
(ii) If the vapour density of the compound is 252, what is the molecular formula of the compound?
(iii) Name the type of chemical reaction by which X can be prepared from ethane.
The gas laws which relates the volume of a gas to the number of molecules of the gas is:
(a) Avogadro's law
(b) Gay-Lussac's law
(c) Boyle's law
(d) Charle's law
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 123
A gas cylinder of capacity of 20 dm3 is filled with gas X the mass of which is 10 g. When the same cylinder is filled with hydrogen gas at the same temperature and pressure the mass of the hydrogen is 2 g, hence the relative molecular mass of the gas is:
Equal masses of all gases under identical conditions contain the same number of molecules.
(i) LPG stands for liquefied petroleum gas. Varieties of LPG are marketed including a mixture of propane (60%) and butane (40%). If 10 litre of this mixture is burnt, find the total volume of carbon dioxide gas added to the atmosphere. Combustion reaction can be presented as :
(ii) Calculate the percentage of nitrogen and oxygen in ammonium nitrate [Relative molecular mass of ammonium nitrate is 80, H=1, N=14, O = 16].
(ii) Molecular mass of NH4(NO3) = 80
H = 1, N = 14, O = 16
% of nitrogen
As 80 g of NH4 (NO3) contains 28 g of nitrogen,
% of nitrogen
As80 g of NH4(NO3) contains48 g of oxygen
4.5 moles of calcium carbonate are reacted with dilute hydrochloric acid.
(i) Write the equation for the reaction.
(ii) What is the mass of 4.5 moles of calcium carbonate? Relative molecular mass of calcium carbonate is 100)
(iii) What is the volume of carbon dioxide liberated at STP?
(iv) What mass of calcium chloride is formed? (Relative molecular mass of calcium chloride is 111)
(v) How many moles of HCl are used in this reaction
(i) Equation for the reaction of calcium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid:
(ii) Relative molecular mass of calcium carbonate=100
Mass of 4.5 moles of calcium carbonate
= No. of moles× Relative molecular mass
As100g of calcium carbonate gives 22.4dm3 of CO2,
(iv) Molecular mass of calcium carbonate =100
Relative molecular mass of calcium chloride =111
As 100 g of calcium carbonate gives 111g of calcium chloride,
(v) Molecular mass of HCl=36.5
Molecular mass of calcium carbonate =100
As 100 g of calcium carbonate gives (2×36.5)= 73g of HCl,
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 124
(i) Calculate the volume of 320 g of SO2 at STP (Atomic mass : S = 32 and O = 16)
(ii) State Gay-Lussac's Law of combining volumes.
(iii) Calculate the volume of oxygen required for the complete combustion of 8.8 of propane (C3H5). (Atomic mass : C = 14, O = 16, H = 1, Molar Volume = 22.4 dm3 at STP)
(i) Atomic mass: S = 32 and O = 16
Molecular mass of SO2=32+(2×16)=64g
As 64 g of SO2 = 22.4dm3,
(ii) Gay-Lussac's law: When gases react, they do so in volumes which bear a simple ratio to one another and to the volume of the gaseous product, if all the volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure.
(iii) C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O
Molar mass of propane = 44
44 g of propane requires 5 × 22.4 litres of oxygen at STP.
An organic compound with vapour density = 94 contains C = 12.67%, H = 2.13% and Br = 85.11%. Find the molecule formula.
[Atomic mass C = 12, H = 1, Br = 80]
Relative atomic mass
2.13/1 = 2.13
12.67/12 = 1.055
85.11/80 = 1
Empirical formula = CH2Br
n(Empirical formula mass of CH2Br) = Molecular mass (2 × VD)
n(12 + 2 + 80) = 94 × 2
n = 2
Molecular formula = Empirical formula × 2
= (CH2Br) × 2
Calculate the mass of
(i) 1022 atoms of sulphur
(ii) 0.1 mole of carbon dioxide
[Atomic mass : S = 32,C=12, and O = 16 and Avogadro's number = 6 × 1023]
(i) 1022 atoms of sulphur
6.022 × 1023 atoms of sulphur will have mass = 32 g
(ii) 0.1 mole of carbon dioxide
1 mole of carbon dioxide will have mass = 44 g
0.1 mole of carbon dioxide will have mass = 4.4 g
O2is evolved by heating KCIO3 using MnO2 as a catalyst.
(i) Calculate the mass of KClO3 required to produce 6.72 litre of O2at STP
[Atomic masses : K = 39, Cl = 35.5, O = 16]
(ii) Calculate the number of moles of oxygen present in the above volume and also the number of molecules
(iii) Calculate the volume occupied by 0.01 mole of CO2at STP
Solve the following :
(i) What volume of oxygen is required to burn completely 90dm3 of butane under similar conditions of temperature and pressure?
(ii) The vapour density of a gas is 8. What would be the volume occupied by 24.0 of the gas at STP?
(iii) A vessel contains X number of molecules of hydrogen gas at a certain temperature and pressure. How many molecules of nitrogen gas would be present in the same vessel under the same conditions of temperature and pressure?
(i) Oxygen oxidase ethyne to carbon dioxide and water as shown by the equation :
2C2H2 + 5O2 → 4CO2 + 2H2O
What volume of ethylene gas at STP is required to produce 8.4 dm3of carbon dioxide at STP?
(ii) A compound made up of two elements X and Y has an empirical formula X2Y. if the atomic weight of X is 10 and that Y is 5 and the compound has a vapour density 25, find its molecular formula.
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 125
Give one word or phrase for the following:
(i) The ratio of the mass of a certain volume of gas to the mass of an equal volume of hydrogen under the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
(ii) Formation of ions from molecules
(i) Vapour density
(i) State Avogadro's Law
(ii) A cylinder contains 68g of ammonia gas at STP
(1) What is the volume occupied by this gas?
(2) How many moles of ammonia are present in the cylinder?
(3) How many molecules of ammonia are present in the cylinder? [N-14,H-1]
(i) Avogadro's law:Equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules.
Which of the following would weigh the least?
(A) 2 gram atoms of Nitrogen
(B) 1 mole of Silver
(C) 22.4 litres of oxygen gas at 1 atmospheric pressure and 273K
(D) 6.02 × 1023 atoms of carbon
[Atomic masses : Ag = 108, N - 14, O = 16,C = 12]
6.02 × 1023 atoms of carbon
Complete the following calculations. Show working for complete credit:
(i) Calculate the mass of calcium that will contain the same number of atoms as are present in 3.2 gm of Sulphur. [Atomic masses : S = 32, Ca = 40]
(ii) If 6 litres of hydrogen and 4 litres of chlorine are mixed and exploded and if water is added to the gases formed, find the volume of the residual gas.
(iii) If the empirical formula of a compound is CH and it has a vapour density of 13, find the molecular formula of the compound.
(i) 3.2 g of S has number of atoms = 6.023 × 1023 x 3.2 /32
= 0.6023 × 1023
So, 0.6023 × 1023 atoms of Ca has mass=40 × 0.6023 ×1023/6.023 × 1023 = 4g
(ii) 6 litres of hydrogen and 4 litres of chlorine when mixed result in the formation of 8 litres of HCl gas.
When water is added to it, it results in the formation of hydrochloric acid. Chlorine acts as a limiting agent leaving behind only 2 litres of hydrogen gas.
Therefore, the volume of the residual gas will be 2 litres.
Consider the following reaction and based on the reaction answer the questions that follow :
(i) The quantity in moles of (NH4)2Cr2O7 if 63 gm of (NH4)2Cr2O7 is heated.
(ii) The quantity in moles of nitrogen formed.
(iii) The volume in litres or dm3 of N2evolved at STP
(iv) The mass in grams of Cr2O3 formed at the same time
[Atomic masses : H = 1, Cr=52, N=14]
(ii) 252 g of ammonium dichromate gives 22.4 dm3of N2
(iv) 252 g of ammonium dichromate gives 152 g of CrO3
A gas cylinder contain 12 × 1024 molecules of oxygen gas
If Avogadro's number is 6 × 1023, calculate :
(i) The mass of oxygen present in the cylinder
(ii) The volume of oxygen at STP present in the Cylinder [O = 16]
A gaseous hydrocarbon contains 82.76% of carbon. Given that its vapour density is 29, find its molecular formula.
[C = 12, H = 1]
% of carbon = 82.76%
% of hydrogen = 100 - 82.76 = 17.24%
= 1 × 2 = 2
= 2.5 × 2 = 5
Empirical formula = C2H5
Empirical formula weight = 2 × 12 + 1 × 5 = 24 + 5 = 29
Vapour density = 29
Relative molecular mass = 29 × 2 = 58
Chapter 5 - Mole Concept And Stoichiometry Exercise 126
The equation 4NH35O2 → 4NO + 6H2O represents the catalytic oxidation of ammonia. If 100 cm3of ammonia is used, calculate the volume of oxygen required to oxidise the ammonia completely.
A gas of 32 g mass has a volume of 20 litres at STP. Calculate the gram molecular weight of the gas.
Mass of gas = 32 g
Volume occupied by 32g of gas = 20litres
How much calcium oxide is formed when 82 g of calcium nitrate is heated? Also find the volume of nitrogen dioxide evolved:
2Ca(NO3)2→ 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2 (Ca = 40,N = 14, O = 16)
2Ca(NO3)2→ 2CaO + 4NO2 + O2
Molecular weight of 2Ca(NO3)2 = 2[40+2(14+48) = 32g
Molecular weight of CaO = 2(40 + 16) = 112g
328 g of Ca(No3]2 liberates 4 moles of NO2
328 g of Ca (NO3)2 liberates 4 × 22.4 L of NO2
The ratio between the number of molecules in 2g of hydrogen and 32 g of oxygen is
[Given that H=1,O=16]
(a) Calculate the number of gram atoms in 4.6 grams of sodium (Na = 23)
(b) Calculate the percentage of water of crystallization in CuSO4. 5H2O
(H = 1, O = 16, S = 32, Cu = 64)
(c) A compound of X and Y has the empirical formula XY2. Its vapour density is equal to its empirical formula weight. Determine its molecular formula.
(a) Propane burns in air according to the following equation :
C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O
What volume of propane is consumed on using 1000 cm3of air, considering only 20% of air contains oxygen?
(b) The mass of 11.2 litres of a certain gas at s.t.p is 24 g. Find gram molecular mass of the gas
C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O
Volume of air = 1000 cm3
Percentage of oxygen in air = 20%
From the given information,
According to Gay-Lussac's law,
1 vol. of propane consumes 5 vol. of oxygen.
Volume of oxygen = 1000 cm3 × 20% = 200 cm3
Volume of propane burnt for every 200 cm3 of oxygen,
40 cm3of propane is burnt.
Volume of gas at STP = 11.2 litres
Mass of gas at STP = 24 g
Gram molecular mass = ?
Mass of 22.4 L of a gas at STP is equal to its gram
11.2 L of the gas at STP weighs 24 g
22.4 L of the gas will weigh
Gram molecular mass = 48 g
A gas cylinder can hold 1 kg of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure.
(a) Find the number of moles of hydrogen present
(b) What weight of CO2can the cylinder hold under similar conditions of temperature and pressure? (H = 1 C = 12, O = 16)
(c) If the number of molecules of hydrogen in the cylinder is X, calculate the number of CO2 molecules in the cylinder with the same conditions of temperature and pressure.
(d) State the law that helped you to arrive at the above result
Mass of hydrogen = 1 kg at 298 K and 1 atm pressure
Moles of hydrogen =?
(b) Molecular mass of CO2 = 12 + 2 × 16 = 44g
So, vapour density (VD) = mol. Mass/2 = 44/2 = 22
(c) According to Avogadro's law, equal volumes of all gases under similar conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.
(d) So, number of molecules of carbon dioxide in the cylinder = number of molecules of hydrogen in the cylinder = X
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