FRANK Solutions for Class 10 Biology Chapter 4 - Absorption by Roots
Chapter 4 - Absorption by Roots Exercise 48
(iii) Turgor pressure
(iv) Hypertonic solution
(ii) Diffusion - It is the movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration to equalize the concentration of the two regions.
(iii) Turgor Pressure - It is the actual hydrostatic pressure developed inside a cell as a result of entry of water into it.
(iv) Hypertonic solution - A solution whose concentration is more than that of cell sap is called hypertonic solution.
(v) Plasmolysis - The shrinkage of cytoplasm of a living cell as a result of exosmosis is known as plasmolysis.
(ii) Root hairs have a very large surface area.
(ii) What part is played by
(a) the cell wall?
(b) The cytoplasm in the uptake of water into the root hair?
(iii) What would happen to the root hair of a potted plant if the soil was watered with an extremely concentrated solution of sodium chloride?
(ii) (a) Cell wall separates the two solutions - cell sap and soil solution and is permeable which means it allows the water to enter inside the root hair cells by endosmosis.
(b) The cytoplasm contains vacuoles having cell sap or solution of mineral salts. This cell sap being more concentrated than the soil solution help in water absorption by endosmosis.
(iii) If the soil was watered with extremely concentrated solution of sodium chloride, the water will move out from the root hair due to osmosis and thus, plasmolysis will take place.
(ii) They also help in the absorption of minerals.
(i) Filtration and diffusion
(ii) Turgor pressure and osmotic pressure
(iii) Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions
(iv) Osmosis and diffusion
(v) Flaccid condition and turgid condition
(vi) Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis
Chapter 4 - Absorption by Roots Exercise 49
(i) Name the process.
(ii) Where does this process occur in plants?
(iii) What solution is placed inside the dialysis tubing?
(iv) What happens to the level of the solution in the capillary tube?
(ii) Root hair
(iii) Sugar solution
(iv) The level of the liquid in the capillary tube rises.
(i) The pressure with which the molecules of a substance diffuse.
(ii) Two solutions having same concentrations.
(iii) The force developing in shoot responsible for most of the absorption of water.
(iv) The uptake of mineral ions against concentration gradient.
(v) Tissue concerned with upward conduction of water.
(vi) Condition of cell in which the cell contents are shrunken.
(vii) The inward movement of solvent molecules through the plasma membrane of cell.
(viii) The process by which raisins swell up when placed in a beaker of water.
(ix) Movement of molecules from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
(ii) Isotonic solutions
(iii) Cohesive force
(iv) Active absorption
1. Strong sugar solution
2. Cell wall
4. Large vacuole
Study the diagram and answer the questions that follow:
(i) What is the state of the cell shown in the diagram?
(ii) Name the structure which acts as a selectively permeable membrane.
(iii) If the cell had been placed in distilled water instead of strong sugar solution which feature would not have been present?
(iv) If the cell in the diagram possessed chloroplasts where would these be present?
(v) Name any one feature of this plant cell which is not present in animal cells.
(ii) Plasma membrane
(iii) Large vacoule
(iv) The chloroplasts would be present in the shrunken protoplast.
(vi) Cell wall
Chapter - Exercise
Chapter 4 - Absorption by Roots Exercise 50
(i) Raisins swell up in water.
(ii) We gargle with saline solution in case of throat infection.
(iii) Bacteria and fungi do not grow in pickles, jams, jellies and squashes.
(iv) The leaves of wilted lettuce, if kept in cold water, become crisp.
(ii) Saline water is hypertonic. So any infectious agent such as bacteria in the throat gets plasmolysed and this cures the infection.
(iii) Jam, jellies and pickles are kept in hypertonic solution of sugar or salt in which plasmolysis of bacteria and fungi takes place. This kills the bacteria and fungi and hence, pickles, jam and jellies are preserved properly.
(iv) The leaves of the wilted lettuce become crisp when kept in cold water because they take up water due to endosmosis in hypotonic solution.
Demonstration of Root pressure:
(a) Take a well matured healthy herbaceous plant.
(b) The stem of the plant is cut a few centimeters above the base with a sharp knife and attached to a manometer through a rubber tube.
(c) After a few hours, the level of mercury rises in the manometer.
(d) This is due to the pressure created by water exuded from the cut end of the plant on account of root pressure generated due to entry of water in the root cells.
(ii) Water is important for seed germination.
(iii) Water controls the opening and closing of stomata.
Note: - Each sentence must include one or more of the following four words, and each word can be used several times. Xylem, phloem, roots, leaves.
(ii) Roots supply water to the stem and leaves of the plant.
(iii) In root hairs, the xylem is not fully mature and the endodermis and epidermis are permeable to water.
(iv) Water is absorbed by the plants through xylem in all directions.
(v) The food on the other hand is transported with the help of phloem.
(i) What is the aim of the experiment?
(ii) Some parts of the stem in both the shoots have been removed. Name the conducting tissue in shoot (a) and in shoot (b) that has been removed.
(iii) What are the results of this experiment?
(ii) In shoot, (a) phloem has been removed. In shoot (b), xylem has been removed.
(iii) In shoot (b), xylem has been removed so the leaves are wilted. But in shoot (a), xylem has not been removed so the leaves are turgid.
(i) In which plant, (a), (b) or (c) would the water move up the fastest?
(ii) In which plant (a), (b) or (c), would the water move up slowly?
(iii) Why was the water covered with a layer of oil?
(iv) What is being investigated by this experiment?
(ii) In (b), the water would move up slowly.
(iii) To prevent evaporation of water.
(iv) Absorption of water by the roots.
Chapter 4 - Absorption by Roots Exercise 51
(i) Osmosis involves diffusion of
(a) suspended particles from lower concentration to higher concentration.
(b) suspended particles from higher concentration to lower concentration.
(c) water from the more concentrated solution to the less concentrated solution.
(d) water from the less concentrated solution to the more concentrated solution.
(ii) An example of a selective permeable membrane is
(a) cell wall (b) mitochondrial membrane
(c) chloroplast membrane (d) plasmalemma
(iii) Plasmolysis will occur when the cell is placed in a
(a) hypotonic solution (b) isotonic solution
(c) hypertonic solution (d) acidic solution
(iv) Grapes when placed in a strong sugar solution shrink because of
(a) diffusion (b) plasmolysis
(c) exosmosis (d) endosmosis
(v) Cell turgidity is caused by
(a) endosmosis (b) exosmosis
(c) plasmolysis (d) diffusion
(vi) If a marine plant is transferred to fresh water, it bursts due to
(a) exosmosis (b) endosmosis
(c) plasmolysis (d) diffusion
(vii) Which one is semi-permeable?
(a) Plasmalemma (b) Cell wall
(c) Endoplasmic reticulum (d) Golgi body
(viii) Swelling of wooden doors during rains is caused by
(a) endosmosis (b) imbibition
(c) capillarity (d) osmosis
(ix) Meaning of ascent of sap is
(a) absorption of water from soil.
(b) alteration of water against gravitational force.
(c) reaching of water upwards against gravitational force.
(d) origin of cohesive force in water.
(x) Process of ascent of sap in plants occurs
(a) by cortex (b) by xylem
(c) by phloem (d) by cambium
(xi) Which tissue makes passage for ascent of sap?
(a) Cortex (b) Endodermis
(c) Phloem (d) Xylem
(xii) Absorption of water from soil takes place by
(a) root cap region (b) root hairs
(c) elongation zone (d) maturation zone
(xiii) In ascent of sap water reaches upwards
(a) In the form of a solid column.
(b) in the form of a fragile column.
(c) to some places in the form of solid and to some places in liquid form.
(d) none of the above.
(xiv)The water is translocated upwards from the roots through
(a) xylem (b) phloem
(c) pith (d) endodermis
(xv) Exudation or bleeding is associated with
(c) hydrostatic pressure in the root
(d) pulsation in the innermost layer of cortex
(xvi) Wilting of plants occurs when
(a) phloem is blocked.
(b) xylem is blocked.
(c) a few old roots are removed.
(d) both xylem and phloem are blocked.
(ii) (d) plasmalemma
(iii) (c) hypertonic solution
(iv) (b) plasmolysis
(v) (a) endosmosis
(vi) (b) endosmosis
(vii) (a) Plasmalemma
(viii) (b) imbibition
(ix) (c) reaching of water upwards against gravitational force
(x) (b) by xylem
(xi) (d) Xylem
(xii) (b) root hairs
(xiii) (d) none of the above
(xiv) (a) xylem
(xv) (c) hydrostatic pressure in the root
(xvi) (b) xylem is blocked
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