Wed October 03, 2012 By: Abhinav Kulshreshtha

what is inductive effect?what is hyperconjugation and resonanace structure?

Expert Reply
Fri October 05, 2012
The polarization of a ? bond due to electron withdrawing or electron donating effect of adjacent groups or atoms is called inductive effect

The C-Cl bond in the butyl chloride, CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-Cl is polarized due to electronegativity difference. The electrons are withdrawn by the chlorine atom. Thus the first carbon atom gets partial positive charge. In turn, this carbon atom drags electron density partially from the next carbon, which also gets partial positive charge. Thus the inductive effect is transmitted through the carbon chain. 

Hyperconjugation is the stabilising interaction that results from the interaction of the electrons in a ?-bond (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially filled p-orbital or a ?-orbital to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability of the system.
A resonance structure is an alternate way of drawing a Lewis dot structure for a compound. For some molecules, there are multiple ways to draw a Lewis dot structure that still satisfy the rules (for instance, having the correct total electron count and satisfying the octet rule on each atom). 

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